Nav: Home

Balloon-borne telescope looks for cosmic gamma rays

August 08, 2018

Cosmic gamma rays can provide us with important insights into the high-energy phenomena in our universe. The GRAINE (Gamma-Ray Astro-Imager with Nuclear Emulsion) collaboration aims to high resolution record high-energy cosmic gamma rays using a balloon-borne nuclear emulsion telescope. In April 2018 the team successfully completed another balloon flight test.

Nuclear emulsion film can record tracks of high-energy charged particles at the highest accuracy level in the world. The gamma telescope developed by the GRAINE project is able to automatically analyze a large surface area of this film and add time stamps, creating a telescope with the world's best angular resolution capabilities, polarization sensitivity, and the world's largest aperture. Building on research developments and balloon experiments in 2011 and 2015, the team has refined the ability of the emulsion telescope to observe high energy cosmic gamma rays through balloon flights.

The team is led by Professor Shigeki Aoki and Project Assistant Professor Satoru Takahashi (members of the Kobe University Graduate School of Human Development and Environment) in collaboration with researcher Hiroki Rokujo (Nagoya University Graduate School of Science). The test flight achievement was presented at the 42nd COSPAR (Committee on Space Research) Scientific Assembly 2018 (July 14-22) on July 17.

The balloon experiment in Australia in April 2018 aimed to observe Vela Pulsar, a known bright source of gamma rays. The final preparations for the balloon experiment were completed in March at the launch site in Alice Springs, and then came the wait for high-altitude winds to fulfil the conditions for flying.

Twice the predictions for suitable high-altitude winds were made and they prepared for launch, but the ground-level winds were not sufficient for launch and the launch was postponed. On April 26 the predicted high-altitude and ground-level winds fulfilled launch and flight conditions, and at 6:33am local time they succeeded in the launch. The balloon rose steadily, reaching an altitude of 38km after two hours, before being blown east by the wind and starting a horizontal drift (figure 6). After a length of time that covered the observation window for Vela Pulsar (15-22 o'clock), at 22:19 the team stopped the emulsion telescope. Having carefully predicted its landing spot, at 23:17 they detached the balloon and used a parachute to land the telescope at 23:54, approximately 900km east of Alice Springs at a longitude of 250km SW.

The total flight time was 17 hours 21 minutes, including 15 hours horizontal travel at an elevation of 36-38km. As well as achieving the longest balloon flight time for emulsion telescope balloon experiments, the emulsion telescope was stable throughout the flight. On the following day the team recovered the emulsion telescope (including the emulsion film and data disk) at Longreach, and posted the emulsion film to Sydney University using refrigerated transport. At Sydney University they stored the emulsion film in refrigerated conditions, carried out test developments of the emulsion film for part of the flight, and used microscope observation to confirm that there were no problems with the images captured during the flight.

During May, they successfully completed processing the emulsion film for a total of 489 sheets of film with a combined area of 43.8 square meters. This marked the final stage of the 2018 emulsion telescope balloon experiment in Australia.

The collaboration comments, "Our team is currently analyzing the flight data with the aim of detecting Vela Pulsar and checking the general performance of the telescope. After this, we will repeat long flights for the large-aperture emulsion telescope with the aim of beginning scientific observations."

We are grateful to related groups and members for their contributions to the emulsion telescope 2018 balloon test in Australia.

The balloon-borne experiment was conducted by Scientific Ballooning (DAIKIKYU) Research and Operation Group, ISAS, JAXA.

This research was carried out using a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science for the project "Cosmic gamma-ray observation by balloon borne emulsion telescope to study unsolved issues" (Representative: Shigeki Aoki, Research Project Number: 17H06132).

Kobe University

Related Gamma Rays Articles:

First detection of gamma-ray burst afterglow in very-high-energy gamma light
An international team of researchers observe a gamma-ray burst, an extremely energetic flash following a cosmological cataclysm, emitting very-high-energy gamma-rays long after the initial explosion.
Gamma-ray bursts with record energy
The strongest explosions in the universe produce even more energetic radiation than previously known: Using specialised telescopes, two international teams have registered the highest energy gamma rays ever measured from so-called gamma-ray bursts, reaching about 100 billion times as much energy as visible light.
Hubble studies gamma-ray burst with highest energy ever seen
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has given astronomers a peek at the location of the most energetic outburst ever seen in the universe -- a blast of gamma-rays a trillion times more powerful than visible light.
New model proposes jets go superluminal in gamma-ray bursts
Blasts that create gamma-ray bursts may actually exceed the speed of light in surrounding gas clouds, but do so without violating Einstein's theory of relativity.
The highest energy gamma rays discovered by the Tibet ASgamma experiment
The Tibet ASgamma experiment, a China-Japan joint research project, has discovered the highest energy cosmic gamma rays ever observed from an astrophysical source - in this case, the 'Crab Nebula.' The experiment detected gamma rays ranging from > 100 Teraelectron volts (TeV) to an estimated 450 TeV.
Thunderbolt of lightning, gamma rays exciting
University of Tokyo graduate student Yuuki Wada with colleagues from Japan discover a connection between lightning strikes and two kinds of gamma-ray phenomena in thunderclouds.
X and gamma rays --Even more powerful
International group of researchers including scientists from Skoltech have invented a new method for the generation of intense X and gamma-ray radiation based on Nonlinear Compton Scattering.
Newly detected microquasar gamma-rays 'call for new ideas'
The first-ever detection of highly energetic radiation from a microquasar has astrophysicists scrambling for new theories to explain the extreme particle acceleration.
Mountaintop observatory sees gamma rays from exotic Milky Way object
The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory (HAWC) collaboration has detected highly energetic light coming from a microquasar -- a black hole that gobbles up stuff from a companion star and blasts out powerful jets of material.
Balloon-borne telescope looks for cosmic gamma rays
Cosmic gamma rays can provide us with important insights into the high-energy phenomena in our universe.
More Gamma Rays News and Gamma Rays Current Events

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2019.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Accessing Better Health
Essential health care is a right, not a privilege ... or is it? This hour, TED speakers explore how we can give everyone access to a healthier way of life, despite who you are or where you live. Guests include physician Raj Panjabi, former NYC health commissioner Mary Bassett, researcher Michael Hendryx, and neuroscientist Rachel Wurzman.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#544 Prosperity Without Growth
The societies we live in are organised around growth, objects, and driving forward a constantly expanding economy as benchmarks of success and prosperity. But this growing consumption at all costs is at odds with our understanding of what our planet can support. How do we lower the environmental impact of economic activity? How do we redefine success and prosperity separate from GDP, which politicians and governments have focused on for decades? We speak with ecological economist Tim Jackson, Professor of Sustainable Development at the University of Surrey, Director of the Centre for the Understanding of Sustainable Propserity, and author of...
Now Playing: Radiolab

An Announcement from Radiolab