Nav: Home

Study finds link between long-term exposure to air pollution and emphysema

August 13, 2019

Long-term exposure to air pollution was linked to increases in emphysema between 2000 and 2018, according to a new study funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), both part of the National Institutes of Health. Emphysema, usually associated with smokers, is a chronic disease in which lung tissue is destroyed and unable to effectively transfer oxygen in the body. The study is published in The Journal of the American Medical Association.

"These findings may offer one explanation for why emphysema is found in some people who never smoked," said James Kiley, Ph.D., NHLBI's director of the Division of Lung Diseases. "The study's results, duration, and timing offer insight into the long-term effects of air pollution on the U.S. population."

The relationship between various air pollutants and emphysema was measured through computed tomography (CT) lung imaging and lung function testing. Consistent results were found in these varied metropolitan regions: Winston-Salem, North Carolina; St. Paul, Minnesota; New York City; Baltimore; Chicago; and Los Angeles. Participants came from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a medical research study, and involved more than 7,000 men and women from the six localities.

"The combined health effect of multiple air pollutants ? ozone, fine particles known as PM2.5, nitrogen oxides, and black carbon ? was greater than when the pollutants were assessed individually," said Bonnie Joubert, Ph.D., a scientific program director at NIEHS. "With the study's long-running duration, repeated CT scans allowed analysis of changes in emphysema over time."

Researchers measured all major air pollutants with longitudinal increases in percent emphysema revealed by more than 15,000 CT scans acquired from 2000 to 2018. Over the same period, MESA carefully tracked air pollution. MESA is unique in its meticulous characterization of air pollution exposures along with repeated CT scans of lungs in study participants.

"Air pollution is a significant public health concern around the world," said Gwen Collman, Ph.D., director of NIEHS' Division of Extramural Research and Training. "It's been a priority of NIEHS research for many years, so it's great when we can accelerate our efforts by joining with other NIH institutes in supporting research on lung disease."

Emphysema is a debilitating disease, and people with emphysema have difficulty breathing along with a persistent cough and phlegm. It makes physical and social activities difficult, creates work hardships, and may result in detrimental emotional conditions. Its development can be a slow, lifelong process. Emphysema is not curable, but treatments help manage the disease.

Understanding and controlling emphysema may lead to better treatment.

"It's important that we continue to explore factors that contribute to emphysema, particularly in a large, multi-ethnic group of adults such as those represented by MESA," Kiley said.

"We need to assess the effectiveness of strategies to control air pollutants in our efforts to improve heart and lung health," said David Goff, M.D., Ph.D., director of NHLBI's Division of Cardiovascular Sciences. "At the same time, people need to remember the importance of a healthy diet, physical activity, and smoking cessation for overall health."
-end-
This study also included support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of their MESA Air and MESA Air Next Stage project.

About the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS): NIEHS supports research to understand the effects of the environment on human health and is part of the National Institutes of Health. For more information on NIEHS or environmental health topics, visit http://www.niehs.nih.gov or subscribe to a news list.

About the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI): NHLBI is the global leader in conducting and supporting research in heart, lung, and blood diseases and sleep disorders that advances scientific knowledge, improves public health, and saves lives. For more information, visit http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov.

NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health®

Grant Numbers:

NIEHS

R01ES023500
P50ES07033
K24ES03195

NHLBI

R01HL077612
R01HL100543
R01HL093081
R01HL121270
R01HL130605

U.S. EPA

US EPA RD831697
US EPA RD83479601-01
US EPA RD838330001

Reference:

Wang M, Aaron CP, Madrigano J, Hoffman, EA, Angelini E, Yang, J, Laine A, Vetterli TM, Kinney PL, Sampson PD, Sheppard LE, Szpiro AA, Adar SD, Kirwa K, Smith B, Lederer DJ, Diez-Roux AV, Vedal S, Kaufman JD. 2019. Association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and change in quantitatively assess emphysema and lung function. JAMA 322(6):1-11.doi:10.1001/jama.2019.10255

Contacts:

Sheena Scruggs, Ph.D.
NIEHS
Sheena.Scruggs@NIH.gov
984-287-3355

NHLBI News Team
nhlbi_news@nhlbi.nih.gov
301-496-5449

NIH/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Related Science Articles:

75 science societies urge the education department to base Title IX sexual harassment regulations on evidence and science
The American Educational Research Association (AERA) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) today led 75 scientific societies in submitting comments on the US Department of Education's proposed changes to Title IX regulations.
Science/Science Careers' survey ranks top biotech, biopharma, and pharma employers
The Science and Science Careers' 2018 annual Top Employers Survey polled employees in the biotechnology, biopharmaceutical, pharmaceutical, and related industries to determine the 20 best employers in these industries as well as their driving characteristics.
Science in the palm of your hand: How citizen science transforms passive learners
Citizen science projects can engage even children who previously were not interested in science.
Applied science may yield more translational research publications than basic science
While translational research can happen at any stage of the research process, a recent investigation of behavioral and social science research awards granted by the NIH between 2008 and 2014 revealed that applied science yielded a higher volume of translational research publications than basic science, according to a study published May 9, 2018 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Xueying Han from the Science and Technology Policy Institute, USA, and colleagues.
Prominent academics, including Salk's Thomas Albright, call for more science in forensic science
Six scientists who recently served on the National Commission on Forensic Science are calling on the scientific community at large to advocate for increased research and financial support of forensic science as well as the introduction of empirical testing requirements to ensure the validity of outcomes.
More Science News and Science Current Events

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Rethinking Anger
Anger is universal and complex: it can be quiet, festering, justified, vengeful, and destructive. This hour, TED speakers explore the many sides of anger, why we need it, and who's allowed to feel it. Guests include psychologists Ryan Martin and Russell Kolts, writer Soraya Chemaly, former talk radio host Lisa Fritsch, and business professor Dan Moshavi.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#537 Science Journalism, Hold the Hype
Everyone's seen a piece of science getting over-exaggerated in the media. Most people would be quick to blame journalists and big media for getting in wrong. In many cases, you'd be right. But there's other sources of hype in science journalism. and one of them can be found in the humble, and little-known press release. We're talking with Chris Chambers about doing science about science journalism, and where the hype creeps in. Related links: The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study Claims of causality in health news: a randomised trial This...