'CSI' technology holds potential in everyday medicineAugust 21, 2012
PHILADELPHIA, Aug. 21, 2012 -- A scientific instrument featured on CSI and CSI: Miami for instant fingerprint analysis is forging another life in real-world medicine, helping during brain surgery and ensuring that cancer patients get effective doses of chemotherapy, a scientist said here today.
The report on technology already incorporated into instruments that miniaturize room-size lab instrumentation into devices the size of a shoebox was part of the 244th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society, the world's largest scientific society. The meeting, which features about 8,600 reports with an anticipated attendance of 14,000 scientists and others continues here through Thursday.
"With both of the instruments we developed, no sample preparation is needed, which reduces analysis time from as much as several hours per sample to just a few seconds," said Graham Cooks, Ph.D., who led the research team. "Rapid results are critical when a surgeon is operating on a brain tumor or when chemotherapy patients are being treated with powerful drugs that must be administered at precise levels."
The instrument called a "desorption electrospray ionization" mass spectrometer, or DESI, was featured on both CSI and CSI: Miami as a tool to analyze fingerprints. However, this portable instrument can do so much more. It's about the size of a shoebox and does not change or destroy the sample that is analyzed. Cooks' students have even carried it into a grocery store and held it close to the outer surfaces of fruit and vegetables to detect pesticides and microorganisms. The team also used it to identify biomarkers for prostate cancer and to detect melamine, a potentially toxic substance that showed up in infant formulas in China in 2008 and in pet food in the U.S. in 2007. In addition, DESI can detect explosives on luggage.
Now, Cooks' team at Purdue University is teaming up with collaborators led by Nathalie Y. R. Agar, Ph.D., at Harvard University to test the instrument in the operating room during brain cancer surgery, comparing it with the gold standard -- traditional analysis of tissue samples by pathologists.
"These procedures are among the longest of all surgical operations, and this new technology offers the promise of reducing the time patients are under anesthesia," Cooks explained. "DESI can analyze tissue samples and help determine the type of brain cancer, the stage and the concentration of tumor cells. It also can help surgeons identify the margins of the tumor to assure that they remove as much of the tumor as possible. These are early days, but the analysis looks promising."
The other instrument under development in Cooks' lab is a "PaperSpray ionization" mass spectrometer. The researchers are using this new device to monitor the levels of chemotherapy drugs in patients' blood in real time. "Many cancer drugs have relatively narrow therapeutic ranges, so they need to be in the blood at certain levels to work properly," he noted. "But at present, that information is not obtained in real time, so a patient could end up with too little or too much of the drug in his or her body."
For a video of PaperSpray, click here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BHcMbFyHxTc
Both the DESI and PaperSpray mass spectrometers work in a similar way. To weigh chemicals, mass spectrometers need to ionize, or give a positive or negative charge to a substance. Mass spectrometers usually do this inside the instrument under a vacuum without air. But DESI and PaperSpray can do this so-called ionization process out in the open. This allows scientists much more flexibility. DESI and PaperSpray also can do analyses without separating out all of the chemicals in a sample first (unlike conventional instruments), which provides quick results. They are also very easy to operate. "You just point and shoot," said Cooks.
Currently, Cooks' team is testing to see whether DESI can provide different information compared to what pathologists can provide by looking at human tissues under a microscope. In addition, the researchers are testing PaperSpray on patients' blood samples, though Cooks points out that the device also could measure the levels of drugs of abuse or pharmaceuticals in urine or other body fluids.
The researchers acknowledged funding from the National Institutes of Health and the Institute for Biomedical Development at Purdue University.
The American Chemical Society is a nonprofit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress. With more than 164,000 members, ACS is the world's largest scientific society and a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. Its main offices are in Washington, D.C., and Columbus, Ohio.
To automatically receive news releases from the American Chemical Society, contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Note to journalists: Please report that this research was presented at a meeting of the American Chemical Society.
A minor revolution is occurring in mass spectrometry with the growing recognition that it is possible to simplify sample preparation for complex real-world samples. Key to this development is ambient ionization - performed in air, outside the mass spectrometer. DESI uses a charged spray and it and related methods give qualitative and quantitative information as well as allowing imaging by measuring the spatial distribution of multiple analytes. This can be done using histological sections of biological tissue. Molecular disease diagnostics in human bladder, liver and brain cancer is possible. The combination of ambient ionization techniques with miniature mass spectrometers allows rapid in situ analysis, at home, in the grocery store, on the factory floor. The handheld mass spectrometers used in these experiments can guide surgical decision-making in real time, provide in situ real-time measurements of drug levels in blood and determine agrochemical residues in foods.
American Chemical Society
Related Chemotherapy Articles:
A chemotherapy drug used to treat brain cancer may increase vulnerability to depression by stopping new brain cells from growing, according to a new King's College London study out today in Translational Psychiatry.
A Washington State University researcher has documented epigenetic changes in the sperm of men who underwent chemotherapy in their teens.
A brain-boosting protein plays an important role in how well people respond to chemotherapy, researchers report at the ESMO Asia 2016 Congress in Singapore.
It is known from previous research that the ER-beta estrogen receptor often has a protective effect.
A team of UCLA bioengineers has demonstrated that its technology may go a long way toward overcoming the challenges of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, among the most common types of cancer in children, and has the potential to help doctors personalize drug doses.
Two bacterial species that inhabit the human gut activate immune cells to boost the effectiveness of a commonly prescribed anticancer drug, researchers report Oct.
For the last three years the research team has been working on the development of a so-called biomarker to predict treatment effectiveness.
For the first time, researchers have discovered that some leukemia cells harvest energy resources from normal cells during chemotherapy, helping the cancer cells not only to survive, but actually thrive, after treatment.
Researchers at Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen, Norway have combined a laboratory ultrasound technique called 'sonoporation' with the commercially-available chemotherapy compound Gemcitabine to increase the porosity of pancreatic cells with microbubbles and to help get the drug into cancer cells where it is needed.
The addition of high doses of a form of vitamin A could help make chemotherapy more successful in treating pancreatic cancer, according to an early study by Queen Mary University of London.
Related Chemotherapy Reading:
The Chemotherapy Survival Guide: Everything You Need to Know to Get Through Treatment
by Judith McKay (Author), Tammy Schacher RN OCN MSN (Author)
When you're facing cancer treatment, it's easy to feel overwhelmed and alone. Between the hospital or clinic environment and the medical terminology used by doctors and health care professionals, you may feel as though you've entered a foreign country.
Written by two experienced oncology nurses, this compassionate and comprehensive guide explains in plain English everything you need to know about your treatment, including what you can expect at each stage of chemotherapy and what you can do to prevent or minimize side effects. Packed with practical suggestions, nutritional advice,... View Details
Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice
by Martha Polovich (Author), MiKeala Olsen (Author), Kris Lefebvre (Author)
Order your copy of the fourth edition of the best-selling resource used by more than 101,000 healthcare professionals since 2009 and keep up-to-date on the latest chemotherapy, biotherapy, and targeted agents. This new edition of the Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice has been revised and updated to reflect the current procedures and practices in your specialty. You'll find that this latest edition incorporates a number of significant changes. To help you find the content and information that you need quickly and easily, the text has been reorganized and... View Details
Physicians' Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual 2017
by Edward Chu (Author), Vincent T. DeVita Jr. (Author)
Completely revised and updated for 2017, the Physicians’ Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual is an up-to-date guide to the latest information on standard therapy and recent advances in the field. Written by world-class experts in clinical cancer therapeutics, this essential reference provides a complete, easy-to-use catalogue of over 100 drugs and commonly used drug regimens―both on- and off-label―for the treatment of all the major cancers. View Details
Chemotherapy: After Side Effects Chart, Cycle Journal & Medical Appointments Diary for Chemo, Oncology, Cancer Treatment & Recovery
by Anthea Peries (Author)
ChemotherapyAfter Side Effects Chart, Cycle Journal & Medical Appointments Diary for Chemo, Oncology, Cancer Treatment & Recovery ABOUT THIS BOOK Chemotherapy is usually given to patients as several sessions of treatment, with rest periods in between. Chemotherapy and the rest period make up one cycle of your treatment. Your cancer doctor will explain the number of cycles you need. Sometimes treatment involves having chemotherapy in more than one way and this should be explained to you by the doctor.If your chemotherapy treatment plan... View Details
Chemotherapy and Radiation For Dummies
by Alan P. Lyss (Author), Humberto Fagundes (Author), Patricia Corrigan (Author)
An informative, compassionate guide for cancer patients and their loved ones
Each year, more than 1 million people get treated for cancer, and most of these will undergo chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both. This reassuring, optimistic guide helps people get a handle on treatment options and explains in plain English how chemotherapy and radiation therapy really work. It offers detailed advice on how to alleviate and cope with side effects-which range from hair loss to nausea to anemia-and describes how good nutrition, meditation, support groups, and other techniques and... View Details
Physicians' Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual 2016
by Edward Chu (Author), Vincent T. DeVita Jr. (Author)
Completely revised and updated for 2016, the Physicians’ Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Manual is an up-to-date guide to the latest information on standard therapy and recent advances in the field. Written by world-class experts in clinical cancer therapeutics, this essential reference provides a complete, easy-to-use catalogue of over 100 drugs and commonly used drug regimens―both on- and off-label―for the treatment of all the major cancers. SPECIAL FEATURES: • Revised to reflect rapid advances in the field, incorporating treatment strategies and new drugs like belinostat, blinatumomab,... View Details
Stay Healthy During Chemo: The Five Essential Steps
by Mike Herbert ND (Author), Joseph Dispenza (Contributor)
Chemotherapy works to beat your cancer, but it also takes its own toll on your body and your health. During treatment, it is more important than ever to do what you can to keep yourself strong and healthy. The best way of doing that is to work with your body's innate healing powers.
This book offers a treasure chest of practical guidance for feeling good during chemo and beyond. And it does so through 5 basic steps, supporting you to:
Change your thinking and develop an attitude focused on healing.Detoxify with therapeutic baths to promote healing from the inside out.Eat the best... View Details
Chemotherapy: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: The Linacre Lecture 1946
by Alexander Fleming (Author)
Originally published in 1946, this volume contains the text of the Linacre Lecture delivered on 6 May of that year by Sir Alexander Fleming on the subject of chemotherapy's application to bacterial infections. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in medical history. View Details
From Cocktails to Chemotherapy: A Guide to Navigating Cancer in Your 30's: A Guide to Navigating Cancer in Your 30's
by Meredith J. Goldberg (Author)
In 2010 there were 209,060 reported cases of breast cancer in the United States. 207,090 of them were women. At the age of 32, the author, Meredith Goldberg was one of them. From Cocktails to Chemotherapy follows what happened to the author after her August 2010 diagnosis—almost two years of surgeries, scans, MRIs, biopsies, chemotherapy, radiation, and, finally, navigating what happens when the oncologist gives you the okay to resume your regularly scheduled life. Goldberg’s path followed much the same trajectory as tens of thousands of other women have followed with one exception; she... View Details
Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Handbook Series)
by Roland T. Skeel (Author), Samir N. Khlief (Author)
Skeel's Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy combines in one place the most current rationale and specific details necessary to administer chemotherapy for most adult cancers. The handbook is a practical, diseased-focused pocket reference that emphasizes the best current medical practice as it relates to the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. By focusing on specific plans for treatment, the book is an invaluable resource for the daily care of cancer patients. View Details