Nav: Home

These lithium-ion batteries can't catch fire because they harden on impact

August 22, 2018

BOSTON, Aug. 22, 2018 -- Lithium-ion batteries commonly used in consumer electronics are notorious for bursting into flame when damaged or improperly packaged. These incidents occasionally have grave consequences, including burns, house fires and at least one plane crash. Inspired by the weird behavior of some liquids that solidify on impact, researchers have developed a practical and inexpensive way to help prevent these fires.

They will present their results today at the 256th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS). ACS, the world's largest scientific society, is holding the meeting here through Thursday. It features more than 10,000 presentations on a wide range of topics.

"In a lithium-ion battery, a thin piece of plastic separates the two electrodes," Gabriel Veith, Ph.D., says. "If the battery is damaged and the plastic layer fails, the electrodes can come into contact and cause the battery's liquid electrolyte to catch fire."

To make these batteries safer, some researchers instead use a nonflammable, solid electrolyte. But these solid-state batteries require significant retooling of the current production process, Veith says. As an alternative, his team mixes an additive into the conventional electrolyte to create an impact-resistant electrolyte. It solidifies when hit, preventing the electrodes from touching if the battery is damaged during a fall or crash. If the electrodes don't touch each other, the battery doesn't catch fire. Even better, incorporating the additive would require only minor adjustments to the conventional battery manufacturing process.

The project's eureka moment came when Veith and his kids were playing with a mix of cornstarch and water known as oobleck. "If you put the mixture on a cookie tray, it flows like a liquid until you start poking it, and then it becomes a solid," says Veith, who is based at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and is the project's principal investigator. After the pressure is removed, the substance liquefies again. Veith realized he could exploit this reversible "shear thickening" behavior to make batteries safer.

This characteristic depends on a colloid, which is a suspension of tiny, solid particles in a liquid. In the case of oobleck, the colloid consists of cornstarch particles suspended in water. For the battery colloid, Veith and his colleagues at Oak Ridge and the University of Rochester used silica suspended in common liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. On impact, the silica particles clump together and block the flow of fluids and ions, he explains. The researchers used perfectly spherical, 200-nanometer-diameter particles of silica, or essentially a superfine sand. "If you have that very uniform particle size, the particles disperse homogeneously in the electrolyte, and it works wonderfully," Veith says. "If they're not homogenously sized, then the liquid becomes less viscous on impact, and that's bad."

A few other labs have been studying shear thickening to make batteries safer. One team previously reported on research with "fumed" silica, which consists of tiny irregular particles of silica. Another group recently reported on the effect of using rod-shaped silica particles. Veith thinks his spherical particles might be easier to make than the rod-shaped silica and have a faster response and more stopping power on impact than fumed silica.

One of Veith's major advances involves the production process for the batteries. During manufacture of traditional lithium-ion batteries, an electrolyte is squirted into the battery case at the end of the production process, and then the battery is sealed. "You can't do that with a shear-thickening electrolyte because the minute you try to inject it, it solidifies," he says. The researchers solved this by putting the silica in place before adding the electrolyte. They are seeking a patent on their technique.

In the future, Veith plans to enhance the system so the part of the battery that's damaged in a crash would remain solid, while the rest of the battery would go on working. The team is initially aiming for applications such as drone batteries, but they would eventually like to enter the automotive market. They also plan to make a bigger version of the battery, which would be capable of stopping a bullet. That could benefit soldiers, who often carry 20 pounds of body armor and 20 pounds of batteries when they're on a mission, Veith says. "The battery would function as their armor, and that would lighten the average soldier by about 20 pounds."
-end-
A press conference on this topic will be held Wednesday, Aug. 22, at 10:30 a.m. Eastern time in the Boston Convention & Exhibition Center. Reporters may check-in at the press center, Room 102A, or watch live on YouTube http://bit.ly/ACSLive_Boston2018. To ask questions online, sign in with a Google account.

The project is being supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

The American Chemical Society, the world's largest scientific society, is a not-for-profit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress. ACS is a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related information and research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. ACS does not conduct research, but publishes and publicizes peer-reviewed scientific studies. Its main offices are in Washington, D.C., and Columbus, Ohio.

To automatically receive press releases from the American Chemical Society, contact newsroom@acs.org.

Note to journalists: Please report that this research was presented at a meeting of the American Chemical Society.

Follow us: Twitter | Facebook

Title

EXPIRE: Extremely Passive Impact Resistant Electrolytes

Abstract

This presentation will detail electrolytes that undergo a liquid to solid transition upon impact. This concept reimagines the battery electrolyte from something to fear to something intrinsic to the safety of a battery. This chemistry is built from colloidal particles that pack within a well defined space. Upon shear the packing changes forming a solid-like material. The presentation will discuss this chemistry and the interfacial reactions that dominate its performance.

American Chemical Society

Related Behavior Articles:

Religious devotion as predictor of behavior
'Religious Devotion and Extrinsic Religiosity Affect In-group Altruism and Out-group Hostility Oppositely in Rural Jamaica,' suggests that a sincere belief in God -- religious devotion -- is unrelated to feelings of prejudice.
Brain stimulation influences honest behavior
Researchers at the University of Zurich have identified the brain mechanism that governs decisions between honesty and self-interest.
Brain pattern flexibility and behavior
The scientists analyzed an extensive data set of brain region connectivity from the NIH-funded Human Connectome Project (HCP) which is mapping neural connections in the brain and makes its data publicly available.
Butterflies: Agonistic display or courtship behavior?
A study shows that contests of butterflies occur only as erroneous courtships between sexually active males that are unable to distinguish the sex of the other butterflies.
Sedentary behavior associated with diabetic retinopathy
In a study published online by JAMA Ophthalmology, Paul D.
Curiosity has the power to change behavior for the better
Curiosity could be an effective tool to entice people into making smarter and sometimes healthier decisions, according to research presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association.
Campgrounds alter jay behavior
Anyone who's gone camping has seen birds foraging for picnic crumbs, and according to new research in The Condor: Ornithological Applications, the availability of food in campgrounds significantly alters jays' behavior and may even change how they interact with other bird species.
A new tool for forecasting the behavior of the microbiome
A team of investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital and the University of Massachusetts have developed a suite of computer algorithms that can accurately predict the behavior of the microbiome -- the vast collection of microbes living on and inside the human body.
Is risk-taking behavior contagious?
Why do we sometimes decide to take risks and other times choose to play it safe?
Neural connectivity dictates altruistic behavior
A new study suggests that the specific alignment of neural networks in the brain dictates whether a person's altruism was motivated by selfish or altruistic behavior.

Related Behavior Reading:

Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd Edition)
by John O. Cooper (Author), Timothy E. Heron (Author), William L. Heward (Author)

Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst
by Robert M. Sapolsky (Author)

Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures
by Raymond G. Miltenberger (Author)

Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being (12th Edition)
by Michael R. Solomon (Author)

Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior
by Carl L Hart Dr. (Author), Charles J. Ksir (Author)

Introduction to Learning and Behavior
by Russell A. Powell (Author), P. Lynne Honey (Author), Diane G. Symbaluk (Author)

Health Behavior: Theory, Research, and Practice (Jossey-Bass Public Health)
by Karen Glanz (Editor), Barbara K. Rimer (Editor), K. Viswanath (Editor)

Essentials of Organizational Behavior (14th Edition)
by Stephen P. Robbins (Author), Timothy A. Judge (Author)

Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers Interactive Ninth Edition, Enhanced Pearson eText with Loose-Leaf Version -- Access Card Package (9th Edition) (What's New in Special Education)
by Paul A. Alberto (Author), Anne C. Troutman (Author)

Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Second Edition: Basics and Beyond
by Judith S. Beck (Author), Aaron T. Beck (Foreword)

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Approaching With Kindness
We often forget to say the words "thank you." But can those two words change how you — and those around you — look at the world? This hour, TED speakers on the power of gratitude and appreciation. Guests include author AJ Jacobs, author and former baseball player Mike Robbins, Dr. Laura Trice, Professor of Management Christine Porath, and former Danish politician Özlem Cekic.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#509 Anisogamy: The Beginning of Male and Female
This week we discuss how the sperm and egg came to be, and how a difference of reproductive interest has led to sexual conflict in bed bugs. We'll be speaking with Dr. Geoff Parker, an evolutionary biologist credited with developing a theory to explain the evolution of two sexes, about anisogamy, sexual reproduction through the fusion of two different gametes: the egg and the sperm. Then we'll speak with Dr. Roberto Pereira, research scientist in urban entomology at the University of Florida, about traumatic insemination in bed bugs.