Nav: Home

When confronted, a single neuron helps a fruit fly change course

August 22, 2018

EUGENE, Ore. -- Aug. 22, 2018 -- In the fruit fly, a single pair of brain neurons command backward locomotion in both larvae and adults, researchers report.

The mapping of descending circuitry that can smoothly and rapidly switch movement from forward to backward is unprecedented, said Chris Doe, a biology professor and co-director of the University of Oregon's Institute of Neuroscience. He was principal investigator on the project, detailed in a paper published Aug. 2 in the journal eLife.

"The big step we've made is that we have a single neuron that both triggers a new behavior and suppresses an antagonistic behavior," said Doe, who also is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and member of the UO's Institute of Molecular Biology.

"It is even more striking, because these neurons drive the same behavioral switch in larvae and adults, which have completely different motor neurons and modes of locomotion," he said. "Our finding that the same pair of neurons control crawling of a limbless maggot and walking of an adult fly was quite surprising."

Changing directions from forward to reverse is vital to survival for fruit flies. Drosophila larvae die after wasps lay eggs that consume larvae from the inside out. Spiders, ants and beetles eat adult fruit flies. Just how neural circuits trigger smooth switching between antagonistic behaviors is a mystery in most animals, Doe said, but it has been seen in nematodes as well.

The methodology behind the discovery provides a way for scientists to link other direct connections between individual brain neurons and nervous system neurons. Doe's lab already is looking at neurons tied to navigation behavior in fruit flies.

The seven-member research used genetic screening, electron microscopy, optogenetics and manual manipulations in the project. They initially looked generally for as many as 10 behavioral responses, but then focused on forward-backward motion. Fluorescent proteins inserted into larvae and adult flies helped track telltale chemical flows in the circuitry when behavior changed.

The team methodically moved through several steps to identify the two backward-inducing brain neurons, starting with more than 300 neurons and gradually winnowing down the population until the final two neurons were found.

The biggest surprise, Doe said, was realizing that the same pair of neurons in a larva retracted its connection to the suite of muscles during metamorphosis and then re-engaged with the motor neurons for the six legs that control muscles in the adults. In limbless larvae, crawling is done by peristalsis, or contractions.

"Limbed locomotion involves a pattern of motion, legs, that is completely different," Doe said. "All the motor neurons are different in the two stages. Those in larvae are lost in metamorphosis. The brain neuron apparently recognizes this in both systems."

The neuron, Doe said, drove halted forward motion and induced backward motion intensely and continuously. For escape purposes, one behavior must be rapidly inactivated by way of neural communication. Flies and mosquitoes, for instance, can sense a human's swat and change directions to avoid contact. Larvae can recognize and avoid noxious environments like high salt or bright light using backwards locomotion.

"Until now, no one has shown that there is an upstream neuron that can coordinately suppress some behaviors and induce others," he said. "Our study gives other researchers a good example of what they may expect to find. A fly has many behaviors. The idea is to map the neurons and circuits controlling all."

The discovery emerged from basic, or fundamental level, research. Doe has explored the early development of neural stem cells as an HHMI investigator since 1994. About five years ago, his lab began studying neural circuits generating motor behaviors, such as crawling or flying.

Such research, as specific neural networks become better understood, Doe said, potentially could help to improve the precision of human prosthetics. It could also feed into robotics, assuring accurate antagonistic responses for controlling bomb-searching robots or help guide rovers exploring the surfaces on other planets, he said.
-end-
In addition to Doe, team members were Arnaldo Carreira-Rosario, Aref Arzan Zarin, Matthew Q. Clark and Laurina Manning, all of the UO, and Richard Fetter and Albert Cardona, both of the HHMI's Janelia Research Campus.

HHMI and National Institutes of Health grants primarily funded the research. A Porter Physiology Development Fellowship awarded to Clark in 2015-15 from the American Physiological Society also supported the work.

Source: Chris Doe, professor of biology, co-director UO Institute of Neuroscience, HHMI investigator, 541-346-4877, cdoe@uoregon.edu

Note: The UO is equipped with an on-campus television studio with a point-of-origin Vyvx connection, which provides broadcast-quality video to networks worldwide via fiber optic network. There also is video access to satellite uplink and audio access to an ISDN codec for broadcast-quality radio interviews.

Links:

About Chris Doe: http://ion.uoregon.edu/content/chris-doe-0

Doe HHMI lab: https://www.hhmi.org/scientists/chris-q-doe

University of Oregon

Related Neurons Articles:

New tool to identify and control neurons
One of the big challenges in the Neuroscience field is to understand how connections and communications trigger our behavior.
Neurons that regenerate, neurons that die
In a new study published in Neuron, investigators report on a transcription factor that they have found that can help certain neurons regenerate, while simultaneously killing others.
How neurons use crowdsourcing to make decisions
When many individual neurons collect data, how do they reach a unanimous decision?
Neurons can learn temporal patterns
Individual neurons can learn not only single responses to a particular signal, but also a series of reactions at precisely timed intervals.
A turbo engine for tracing neurons
Putting a turbo engine into an old car gives it an entirely new life -- suddenly it can go further, faster.
Brain neurons help keep track of time
Turning the theory of how the human brain perceives time on its head, a novel analysis in mice reveals that dopamine neuron activity plays a key role in judgment of time, slowing down the internal clock.
During infancy, neurons are still finding their places
Researchers have identified a large population of previously unrecognized young neurons that migrate in the human brain during the first few months of life, contributing to the expansion of the frontal lobe, a region important for social behavior and executive function.
How many types of neurons are there in the brain?
For decades, scientists have struggled to develop a comprehensive census of cell types in the brain.
Molecular body guards for neurons
In the brain, patterns of neural activity are perfectly balanced.
Engineering researchers use laser to 'weld' neurons
University of Alberta researchers have developed a method of connecting neurons, using ultrashort laser pulses -- a breakthrough technique that opens the door to new medical research and treatment opportunities.

Related Neurons Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Bias And Perception
How does bias distort our thinking, our listening, our beliefs... and even our search results? How can we fight it? This hour, TED speakers explore ideas about the unconscious biases that shape us. Guests include writer and broadcaster Yassmin Abdel-Magied, climatologist J. Marshall Shepherd, journalist Andreas Ekström, and experimental psychologist Tony Salvador.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#513 Dinosaur Tails
This week: dinosaurs! We're discussing dinosaur tails, bipedalism, paleontology public outreach, dinosaur MOOCs, and other neat dinosaur related things with Dr. Scott Persons from the University of Alberta, who is also the author of the book "Dinosaurs of the Alberta Badlands".