More than half of "sudden" cardiac arrest victims had contacted health services before

August 25, 2020

Sophia Antipolis, France - 25 Aug 2020: Today scientists report that 58% of "sudden" cardiac arrest sufferers sought medical help during the two weeks before the event. The research is presented today at ESC Congress 2020.1

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac arrest is lethal within minutes if left untreated and it is estimated that, on average, less than 10% of victims survive.

"The high mortality from cardiac arrest in the community emphasises the need to identify those at risk," said study author Dr. Nertila Zylyftari of Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev and Gentofte, Hellerup, Denmark. "This is very challenging since these are considered sudden and unexpected events. But our study indicates that patients felt unwell in the days leading up to the cardiac arrest."

Previous studies have reported that some patients had symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest discomfort and palpitations in advance of a cardiac arrest and contacted the healthcare system. But there is little information on when and where these contacts occurred.

This study investigated contacts with GPs and hospitals in the year before a cardiac arrest. To get a picture of whether there was any variation throughout the year, the researchers examined each week separately. In other words, what proportion of patients contacted a GP or hospital 52 weeks before the arrest, 51 weeks before, and so on, up to one week before.

The researchers used the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry to identify all residents who suffered a cardiac arrest outside of hospital in Denmark between 2001 and 2014. Using the unique civil registration number assigned to all Danish citizens, the researchers linked information from several national administrative registries, including dates of GP and hospital contacts.

A total of 28,955 people had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during the 14-year study period. The median age of victims was 72 years and 67% were men. To compare the results in cardiac arrest patients with the overall population in Denmark, each patient was matched by age and sex to nine people from the general public.

Each week during the year before the cardiac arrest, the percentage of patients in contact with their GP was relatively constant (26%), until two weeks before when it rose to 54%. Every week during that same year, just 14% of people in the matched population contacted their GP.

As for hospital contacts in the year before the arrest, these were relatively constant for the first six months. Each week during that six months, around 3% of patients contacted a hospital. Weekly contacts then gradually increased during the next six months, peaking at two weeks before the arrest, when 6.8% of patients contacted a hospital. Every week during that same year, just 2% of people in the matched population contacted a hospital.

Dr. Zylyftari said: "To our knowledge this was the first study to assess cardiac arrest victims' attempts to get help from both GPs and hospitals throughout the year before the event and compare them with the general population. We show that the proportion of patients who contacted GPs and hospitals were higher every week throughout the year before their event compared to the matched population in the same year."

"It was surprising to see that in the two weeks prior to the cardiac arrest there was an increase in contacts especially with their own doctor," she added.

In a separate analysis, the researchers examined all contacts made to the healthcare system (either GP, hospital or both) during the two-week period prior to the cardiac arrest. This showed that 58% of cardiac arrest patients had contacted the healthcare system compared to 26% of the matched population.

Information was not collected on the reasons why cardiac arrest patients sought medical advice. But the data show that of those who communicated with their GP during the two-week period before the event, 72% did so by phone or email and 43% had a face-to-face consultation. (Some did both, which is why the total exceeds 100%.) Meanwhile, 25% of the cardiac arrest patients who visited hospital during the two-week period before the event had cardiovascular disease.

Dr. Zylyftari said: "More data and research are needed on the reasons for these interactions - for example symptoms - to identify warning signs of those at imminent danger so that future cardiac arrests can be prevented."
Notes to editors

Authors: ESC Press Office
Mobile: +33 (0)7 85 31 20 36

The hashtag for ESC Congress 2020 is #ESCCongress.

Follow us on Twitter @ESCardioNews

This press release accompanies an abstract at ESC Congress 2020 - The Digital Experience.

It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Society of Cardiology.

Funding: This project has received funding from the European Union´s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ESCAPE-NET under grant agreement No. 733381.

Disclosures: No conflicts of interest to declare.

References and notes

1Abstract title: Contacts to the healthcare system prior to out-of-hospital cardiac arrests.

About the European Society of Cardiology

The European Society of Cardiology brings together health care professionals from more than 150 countries, working to advance cardiovascular medicine and help people lead longer, healthier lives.

About the ESC Congress 2020

ESC Congress is the world's largest gathering of cardiovascular professionals contributing to global awareness of the latest clinical trials and breakthrough discoveries. ESC Congress 2020 takes place online from 29 August to 1 September. More information is available from the ESC Press Office at

European Society of Cardiology

Related Cardiac Arrest Articles from Brightsurf:

Outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during COVID-19 pandemic
This study used a large US registry of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests to asses the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, including in areas with low and moderate COVID-19 disease.

Cardiac arrest is common in critically ill patients with COVID-19
Cardiac arrest is common in critically ill patients with covid-19 and is associated with poor survival, particularly among patients aged 80 or older, finds a study published by The BMJ today.

In-hospital cardiac arrest in COVID-19
Outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest among patients with COVID-19 are examined in this case series.

New risk tool developed for cardiac arrest patients
Experts have developed a risk score to predict cardiac arrest patient outcomes.

Intravenous sodium nitrite ineffective for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
Among patients who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, intravenous sodium nitrite given by paramedics during resuscitation did not significantly improve their chances of being admitted to or discharged from the hospital alive, according to research presented at the American College of Cardiology's Annual Scientific Session Together with World Congress of Cardiology (ACC.20/WCC).

Getting to the heart of epinephrine use in pediatric cardiac arrest patients
The effectiveness of epinephrine treatment during resuscitation of adult patients with cardiac arrest is generally promising, but little is known about its effects in pediatric patients.

Bystanders can help more cardiac arrest victims survive
Only 8% of Americans survive cardiac arrest outside a hospital, but that percentage could increase significantly if bystanders recognize cardiac arrest and perform simple lifesaving tasks, a UVA Health physician says in a New England Journal of Medicine article.

Opioid-related cardiac arrest patients differ from other cardiac arrests
People who suffer cardiac arrest due to an opioid overdose are younger, have fewer chronic medical conditions and may be more likely to be to receive bystander CPR, according to a review of emergency response records in Maine.

Selective coronary angiography following cardiac arrest
In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications volume 4, issue 2, pp.

Sudden cardiac arrest in athletes: Prevention and management
It's marathon season, and every so often a news report will focus on an athlete who has collapsed from sudden cardiac arrest.

Read More: Cardiac Arrest News and Cardiac Arrest Current Events is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to