Boosting immune cell memory to improve vaccines and cancer immunotherapyAugust 28, 2017
Vaccines and cancer immunotherapies do essentially the same thing: They boost a person's immune system, better enabling it to fight an offender, be it microbe or malignancy. Both approaches focus on CD8+ T cells, a type of immune cell that can either kill immediately or commit the offender to "memory," providing long-term protection. In mouse experiments, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that drugs that activate the cells' proteasome, or recycling center, tip the balance in favor of memory CD8+ T cells. This approach could be used to improve how well vaccines and immunotherapies work and how long they last.
The study will be published August 28 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.
"We already knew that activated CD8+ T cells divide asymmetrically, giving rise to both effector cells and memory cells," said senior author John T. Chang, MD, associate professor at UC San Diego School of Medicine. "But we didn't really know how the unequal segregation of cellular components during CD8+ T cell division affects their fate."
Using mice and cellular models, Chang and team determined that the two different types of CD8+ T cells, effector and memory, differ in their proteasome activity rates. A cell's proteasome is the cellular machinery that degrades and recycles damaged or unneeded proteins. It's an essential part of all cells, and researchers recently discovered that manipulating proteasome activity can change cellular function.
Proteasome activators and inhibitors are commercially available. Bortezomib, an anti-cancer drug used to treat multiple myeloma, inhibits proteasome activity. Chang and team discovered that cyclosporine, an immunosuppressive drug prescribed to organ transplant recipients, activates the proteasome in CD8+ T cells.
What's more, they found that treating CD8+ T cells with cyclosporine early after microbial infection generated twice as many long-lived memory cells as mock-treated controls.
"While so far this work has only been done in mouse cells and experimental models of infection, we envision this approach could one day be used as an adjuvant therapy -- a one- or two-dose immune booster given alongside a vaccine or cancer immunotherapy to help the intervention work better and last longer," Chang said.
University of California - San Diego
Related Memory Articles:
A quick glance at any social media platform will tell you that people love taking photos of their experiences -- whether they're lying on the beach, touring a museum, or just waiting in line at the grocery store.
Research from Katherine Duncan at the University of Toronto suggests we may have to rethink how we improve memory.
The ability to remember sounds, and manipulate them in our minds, is incredibly important to our daily lives -- without it we would not be able to understand a sentence, or do simple arithmetic.
In the battle of the sexes, women have long claimed that they can remember things better and longer than men can.
A collaboration between Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and Harvard University pioneers the increase of memory using optogenetics in mice in Spain.
Peppermint tea can improve long-term and working memory and in healthy adults.
MIT study finds bursts of neural activity as the brain holds information in mind, overturns a long-held model.
For over forty years, neuro-scientists have been interested in the biological mechanisms underlying the storage of the information that our brain records every day.
Why is it that some people have richly detailed recollection of past experiences (episodic memory), while others tend to remember just the facts without details (semantic memory)?
Neuroscientists at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science have discovered a novel mechanism for memory formation.
Related Memory Reading:
Memory Rescue: Supercharge Your Brain, Reverse Memory Loss, and Remember What Matters Most
by Dr. Daniel G. Amen (Author)
A proven program from #1 New York Times bestselling author and brain researcher Dr. Daniel Amen to help you change your brain and improve your memory today!
Brain imaging research demonstrates that memory loss actually starts in the brain decades before you have any symptoms. Learn the actions you can take to help not just prevent memory loss later in life . . . but to begin restoring the memory you may have already lost.
Expert physician Dr. Amen reveals how a multipronged strategy―including dietary changes, physical and mental exercises, and spiritual... View Details
Unlimited Memory: How to Use Advanced Learning Strategies to Learn Faster, Remember More and be More Productive
by Kevin Horsley (Author)
Kevin Horsley Broke a World Memory Record in 2013...
And You're About to Learn How to Use His Memory Strategies to Learn Faster, Be More Productive and Achieve More Success
Most people never tap into 10% of their potential for memory. In this book, you're about to learn:
How the World's Top Memory Experts Concentrate and Remember Any Information at Will, and How You Can Too
Do you ever feel like you're too busy, too stressed or just too distracted to concentrate and get work done? In Unlimited Memory, you'll learn how the world's best memory masters... View Details
The Memory Book: The Classic Guide to Improving Your Memory at Work, at School, and at Play
by Harry Lorayne (Author), Jerry Lucas (Author)
Unleash the hidden power of your mind through Harry Lorayne and Jerry Lucas's simple, fail-safe memory system, and you can become more effective, more imaginative, and more powerful, at work, at school, in sports and play. Discover how easy it is to: file phone numbers, data, figures, and appointments right in your head; learn foreign words and phrases with ease; read with speed--and greater understanding; shine in the classroom--and shorten study hours; dominate social situations, and more.
From the Paperback edition. View Details
Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything
by Joshua Foer (Author)
The blockbuster phenomenon that charts an amazing journey of the mind while revolutionizing our concept of memory
An instant bestseller that is poised to become a classic, Moonwalking with Einstein recounts Joshua Foer's yearlong quest to improve his memory under the tutelage of top "mental athletes." He draws on cutting-edge research, a surprising cultural history of remembering, and venerable tricks of the mentalist's trade to transform our understanding of human memory. From the United States Memory Championship to deep within the author's own mind, this is an... View Details
Memory Man (Memory Man series)
by David Baldacci (Author)
With over 110 million copies of his novels in print, David Baldacci is one of the most widely read storytellers in the world. Now he introduces a startling, original new character: a man with perfect memory who must solve his own family's murder.
Amos Decker's life changed forever--twice.
The first time was on the gridiron. A big, towering athlete, he was the only person from his hometown of Burlington ever to go pro. But his career ended before it had a chance to begin. On his very first play, a violent helmet-to-helmet collision knocked him off the... View Details
How to Develop a Brilliant Memory Week by Week: 50 Proven Ways to Enhance Your Memory Skills
by Dominic O'Brien (Author)
Written by eight times World Memory Champion, Dominic O'Brien this book is a complete course in memory enhancement. Dominic takes you step-by-step through an ingenious program of skills, introducing all his tried and tested techniques on which he has built his triumphant championship performances. Pacing the course in line with his expert understanding of how the brain responds to basic memory training, Dominic offers strategies and tips that will expand your mental capacities at a realistic but impressive rate. View Details
In Search of Memory: The Emergence of a New Science of Mind
by Eric R. Kandel (Author)
“A stunning book.”―Oliver SacksMemory binds our mental life together. We are who we are in large part because of what we learn and remember. But how does the brain create memories? Nobel Prize winner Eric R. Kandel intertwines the intellectual history of the powerful new science of the mind―a combination of cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and molecular biology―with his own personal quest to understand memory. A deft mixture of memoir and history, modern biology and behavior, In Search of Memory brings readers from Kandel's childhood in... View Details
by Alan Baddeley (Author), Michael W. Eysenck (Author), Michael C. Anderson (Author)
This best-selling textbook presents a comprehensive and accessible overview of the study of memory. Written by three of the world’s leading researchers in the field, it contains everything the student needs to know about the scientific approach to memory and its applications.
Each chapter of the book is written by one of the three authors, an approach which takes full advantage of their individual expertise and style, creating a more personal and accessible text. This enhances students’ enjoyment of the book, allowing them to share the authors’ own fascination with human... View Details
Committing Scripture to Memory: 52 Verses in 52 Weeks (or Less): Be Transformed by the Renewing of Your Mind
by Michael Hartmann (Author)
Have you ever wished you could recite scripture from memory and readily apply that wisdom throughout your daily life, but are convinced you can’t? In Committing Scripture to Memory – 52 Verses in 52 Weeks (or less), Michael Hartmann teaches a simple technique on how you too can learn to memorize scripture. He then conveniently shares 52 significant and encouraging verses from the Holy Bible with perspectives to help you get started. Dig into this book today and learn how Committing Scripture to Memory can help you “Be Transformed by Renewing Your Mind”. This book was written in a way... View Details
The Memory of Butterflies: A Novel
by Grace Greene (Author)
To keep a devastating family secret from being revealed, a young mother’s desperate lies could end up destroying everything, and everyone, she loves. The Memory of Butterflies is a poignant story of family and forgiveness—of knowing when to let go and when to hold each other close.
Hannah Cooper’s daughter is leaving for college soon. The change is bittersweet. A single mother since the age of eighteen, Hannah isn’t eager to confront the pain of being alone, but she’s determined not to let her own hang-ups keep Ellen from the future she deserves. As Ellen’s... View Details