ESC Congress 2004: Effect of concentric and eccentric muscle training on glucose tolerance

August 31, 2004

Disorders in the metabolism of glucose and lipids have reached an epidemic dimension. Important reasons for this tremendous problem are overweight and a lack of exercise. There are plenty of data verifying a positive effect of exercise on glucose and lipid metabolism. However, no data are available on different ways of training, e.g. the comparison of hiking uphill versus hiking downhill. H. Drexel and colleagues found that in healthy sedentary individuals hiking downhill improves glucose tolerance more than hiking uphill.

The positive influence of exercise on reducing blood glucose is well known. There are, however, two different ways by which skeletal muscle can be exercised: concentric and eccentric muscle work. Concentric muscle work is defined as active shortening of muscles, e.g. by stepping upwards, whereas eccentric muscle work is defined as active resistance to stretching, e.g. by stepping downwards. Although the effects of exercise (i.e. the combination of concentric and eccentric muscle contraction) on glucose metabolism have been well established, there are no data on the specific metabolic effects of concentric versus eccentric muscle work in humans. "Our study, therefore, represents a completely new approach to evaluate the effects of different types of exercise!" outlined H. Drexel.

Forty-five healthy sedentary volunteers were recruited through the media. They were allocated randomly to two groups, one beginning with 2 months of concentric, the other with 2 months of eccentric exercise, followed by a cross-over period for further 2 months (Figure 1). By this design, every participant performed both ways of exercise in the course of the study. Participants were advised to exercise from 3 to 5 times a week. The exercise comprised a steady uphill/downhill hike over a difference in altitude of 600 meters. For the opposite way, a cable car was used.

At the beginning of the study and after each exercise period of 2 months a full metabolic profile (glucose levels and different lipid parameters) and an oral glucose tolerance test, which measures the cabability of the body to remove orally administred glucose out of the blood over a period of two hours, were obtained.

Compared to the beginning of the study, the blood glucose was removed much faster in the group of participants after hiking downhill. In medical terms, the area under the glucose curve illustrating the levels of blood glucose after 1 and 2 hours after glucose intake was improved by only 9.4% along with hiking uphill, but by highly significant 25.0% along with hiking downhill (Figure 2).

Hiking downhill improves glucose tolerance more than hiking uphill

In healthy sedentary individuals eccentric muscle training (hiking downhill) improves glucose tolerance more than concentric muscle training (hiking uphill). H. Drexel concluded: "Because many diabetic individuals are not able to perform concentric muscle exercise due to their age or concomitant diseases, eccentric muscle exercise should be tested as an alternative exercise modality for diabetic patients."
-end-
H Drexel (Dornbirn, AT)

This press release accompanies both a presentation and an ESC press conference given at the ESC Congress 2004. Written by the investigator himself/herself, this press release does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Society of Cardiology

European Society of Cardiology

Related Glucose Articles from Brightsurf:

Cannabinoids decrease the metabolism of glucose in the brain
What happens when THC acts on the glial cells named astrocytes ?

What drives inflammation in type 2 diabetes? Not glucose, says new research
Research led by Barbara Nikolajczyk, Ph.D., disproved the conventional wisdom that glucose was the primary driver of chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes.

ALS patients may benefit from more glucose
A new study led by scientists at the UA has uncovered a potential new way to treat patients with ALS, a debilitating neurodegenerative disease.

Artificial muscles powered by glucose
Artificial muscles made from polymers can now be powered by energy from glucose and oxygen, just like biological muscles.

Efficiently producing fatty acids and biofuels from glucose
Researchers have presented a new strategy for efficiently producing fatty acids and biofuels that can transform glucose and oleaginous microorganisms into microbial diesel fuel, with one-step direct fermentative production.

Protein released from fat after exercise improves glucose
Exercise training causes dramatic changes to fat. Additionally, this 'trained' fat releases beneficial factors into the bloodstream.

WSU researchers create 3D-printed glucose biosensors
A 3D-printed glucose biosensor for use in wearable monitors has been created by Washington State University researchers.

Gut protein mutations shield against spikes in glucose
Why is it that, despite consuming the same number of calories, sodium and sugar, some people face little risk of diabetes or obesity while others are at higher risk?

Glucose binding molecule could transform the treatment of diabetes
Scientists from the University of Bristol have designed a new synthetic glucose binding molecule platform that brings us one step closer to the development of the world's first glucose-responsive insulin which, say researchers, will transform the treatment of diabetes.

Nutrients may reduce blood glucose levels
One amino acid, alanine, may produce a short-term lowering of glucose levels by altering energy metabolism in the cell.

Read More: Glucose News and Glucose Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.