New guidance on potentially fatal blood clots published today

August 31, 2019

Paris, France - 31 Aug 2019: The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Guidelines on acute pulmonary embolism are published online today in European Heart Journal(1), and on the ESC website.(2) They were developed in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society (ERS).

Acute pulmonary embolism is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death in Europe, after heart attack and stroke, contributing to more than 350,000 deaths each year. A blood clot (thrombus) in a deep vein, usually in the legs, is dislodged and travels to the lungs where it blocks one or more vessels. This typically occurs if the vein wall is damaged, blood flow is too slow, or the blood becomes too thick.

Major surgery such as knee or hip replacement, serious injury, prolonged bed rest and cancer are common risk factors for acute pulmonary embolism. It can also happen after long travel and in women who are pregnant or taking the oral contraceptive pill.

"Symptoms including shortness of breath and chest pain resemble other diseases so the diagnosis is often missed, or the severity of the situation is underestimated, and many patients die before getting appropriate therapy," said Professor Stavros Konstantinides, Chairperson of the guidelines Task Force and medical director, Centre for Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany.

The guidelines clarify how to diagnose acute pulmonary embolism step by step. The process begins with clinical suspicion based on symptoms combined with blood tests (D-dimers). Depending on the severity and urgency of the scenario, a computed tomography (CT) scan may be used to visualise the lung vessels, or cardiac ultrasound to look at the heart chambers.

A new table shows how CT scans and lung scans compare in their ability to diagnose or exclude pulmonary embolism, and how much radiation the patient receives with each of these tests.

"The aim is to get to the diagnosis as reliably and quickly as possible, in order to start lifesaving therapy and prevent other clots from reaching the lungs," said Professor Guy Meyer, Co?Chairperson of the guidelines Task Force and respiratory medicine physician, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Paris, France.

Anticoagulant drugs (blood thinners) help the body dissolve clots and reopen the blocked vessels. If the patient is in shock and about to collapse, the clot must be removed immediately, and this can be achieved using thrombolytic drugs (clot busters), catheters, or surgery.

The guidelines recommend how to judge the severity of pulmonary embolism based on a combination of clinical, imaging and laboratory results. This will dictate whether blood thinners alone are sufficient or if clot busters, a catheter intervention, or surgical removal is necessary. There is new advice on how to distinguish, in the CT scan, fresh thrombi in the lungs from chronic obstructions due to a disease called chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), which requires a different type of therapy.

Also new is the guidance on which drugs to use in a patient with pulmonary embolism and cancer. Patients with cancer have a high risk of recurrence, and indefinite anticoagulation is often necessary.

Acute pulmonary embolism is a leading cause of maternal death in high-income countries, but diagnosis can be challenging because symptoms often overlap with those of normal pregnancy. Novel recommendations outline how to diagnose and treat pulmonary embolism in the pregnant patient.

Updated instructions state when it is safe to send patients home from the hospital. Some have a lifelong increased risk of another event. Anticoagulants are used to treat the acute episode and prevent recurrence but raise the risk of bleeding. The guidelines describe how to decide the duration of treatment. They also specify when and how (with which tools and tests) to follow patients, and which findings suggest chronic disease (CTEPH) requiring diagnosis and treatment in an expert centre.

Last but not least, the 2019 ESC Guidelines endorse a multidisciplinary approach to pulmonary embolism after the acute phase and discharge of the patient. Teams should include physicians, appropriately qualified nurses, and other allied health professionals, aiming to ensure smooth transitions between hospital specialists and practitioners, optimised long term care and prevention of recurrence.

Advice for patients
-end-
Notes to editors

Authors: ESC Press Office
Mobile: +33 (0) 7 8531 2036
Email: press@escardio.org

Follow us on Twitter @ESCardioNews

The hashtag for ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology is #ESCCongress

Funding: None.

Disclosures: The disclosure forms of all experts involved in the development of these guidelines are available on the ESC website http://www.escardio.org/guidelines.

References and notes

(1) 2019 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism. European Heart Journal. 2019. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehz405.

(2) ESC Guidelines on the ESC website.

Guidelines at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology

The Acute Pulmonary Embolism Guidelines will be featured in:Associated Derivative Products can be found via the ESC website.

Download the free ESC Pocket Guidelines App for all mobile devices.

About ESC Congress

ESC Congress is the world's largest gathering of cardiovascular professionals contributing to global awareness of the latest clinical trials and breakthrough discoveries. ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology takes place from 31 August to 4 September at the Expo Porte de Versailles in Paris, France. Explore the scientific programme. http://spo.escardio.org/default.aspx?eevtid=1423

About the European Society of Cardiology

The European Society of Cardiology brings together health care professionals from more than 150 countries, working to advance cardiovascular medicine and help people lead longer, healthier lives.

European Society of Cardiology

Related Cancer Articles from Brightsurf:

New blood cancer treatment works by selectively interfering with cancer cell signalling
University of Alberta scientists have identified the mechanism of action behind a new type of precision cancer drug for blood cancers that is set for human trials, according to research published in Nature Communications.

UCI researchers uncover cancer cell vulnerabilities; may lead to better cancer therapies
A new University of California, Irvine-led study reveals a protein responsible for genetic changes resulting in a variety of cancers, may also be the key to more effective, targeted cancer therapy.

Breast cancer treatment costs highest among young women with metastic cancer
In a fight for their lives, young women, age 18-44, spend double the amount of older women to survive metastatic breast cancer, according to a large statewide study by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Cancer mortality continues steady decline, driven by progress against lung cancer
The cancer death rate declined by 29% from 1991 to 2017, including a 2.2% drop from 2016 to 2017, the largest single-year drop in cancer mortality ever reported.

Stress in cervical cancer patients associated with higher risk of cancer-specific mortality
Psychological stress was associated with a higher risk of cancer-specific mortality in women diagnosed with cervical cancer.

Cancer-sniffing dogs 97% accurate in identifying lung cancer, according to study in JAOA
The next step will be to further fractionate the samples based on chemical and physical properties, presenting them back to the dogs until the specific biomarkers for each cancer are identified.

Moffitt Cancer Center researchers identify one way T cell function may fail in cancer
Moffitt Cancer Center researchers have discovered a mechanism by which one type of immune cell, CD8+ T cells, can become dysfunctional, impeding its ability to seek and kill cancer cells.

More cancer survivors, fewer cancer specialists point to challenge in meeting care needs
An aging population, a growing number of cancer survivors, and a projected shortage of cancer care providers will result in a challenge in delivering the care for cancer survivors in the United States if systemic changes are not made.

New cancer vaccine platform a potential tool for efficacious targeted cancer therapy
Researchers at the University of Helsinki have discovered a solution in the form of a cancer vaccine platform for improving the efficacy of oncolytic viruses used in cancer treatment.

American Cancer Society outlines blueprint for cancer control in the 21st century
The American Cancer Society is outlining its vision for cancer control in the decades ahead in a series of articles that forms the basis of a national cancer control plan.

Read More: Cancer News and Cancer Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.