Nav: Home

Disrupting the gut microbiome may affect some immune responses to flu vaccination

September 06, 2019

WHAT:

The normal human gut microbiome is a flourishing community of microorganisms, some of which can affect the human immune system. In a new paper published this week in Cell, researchers found that oral antibiotics, which can kill gut microorganisms, can alter the human immune response to seasonal influenza vaccination. The work was led by scientists at Stanford University and funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

The research team examined 33 healthy adult participants in their study. One group of 22 volunteers was studied during the 2014-2015 flu season, and the second group with 11 volunteers was studied during the 2015-2016 flu season. The group of 22 volunteers had high pre-existing immunity to the influenza virus strains contained in the 2014-2015 seasonal influenza vaccine. The group of 11 volunteers had low immunity to the 2015-2016 seasonal influenza vaccine's virus strains.

All study participants received a seasonal influenza vaccine. Half the participants in each group also received a five-day course of a broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen (consisting of neomycin, vancomycin, and metronidazole) by mouth before receiving the vaccine. By analyzing stool and blood serum samples taken at various times up to one year after vaccination, the researchers tracked the participants' immune response to the influenza vaccines, as well as the diversity and abundance of the organisms in their gut microbiomes.

As expected, most participants who received antibiotics experienced reduced levels of gut bacteria. In addition, among the 2015-2016 participants who had little prior immunity to the seasonal influenza virus vaccine strains, a course of antibiotics hindered their immune responses to one of the three influenza virus strains in the vaccine, an H1N1 A/California-specific virus. This likely indicates that should they be exposed to this H1N1 virus after vaccination, these participants would be less protected against infection with that strain than people who had not received antibiotics, according to the authors. This finding supports earlier research results in mice.

The researchers also found that people who took antibiotics experienced changes to their immune systems that promoted a pro-inflammatory state, similar to a condition seen in older adults who have received influenza vaccines. The investigators believe this pro-inflammatory state is related to the process by which the microbiome regulates the metabolism of bile acid--with fewer microorganisms, this process is disrupted. Humans' microbiomes change naturally as they age, and the researchers suggest that further research on these pathways could provide insights into why older adults respond differently to influenza vaccination and why they have weaker immune systems overall.
-end-
ARTICLE: T Hagan et al. Antibiotics-driven gut microbiome perturbation alters immunity to vaccines in humans. Cell DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.010 (2019).

WHO: Alan Embry, Ph.D., Chief of the Respiratory Diseases Branch in NIAID's Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, is available to comment on this study.

CONTACT: To schedule interviews, please contact Elizabeth Deatrick, (301) 402-1663, elizabeth.deatrick@niaid.nih.gov.

NIAID conducts and supports research--at NIH, throughout the United States, and worldwide--to study the causes of infectious and immune-mediated diseases, and to develop better means of preventing, diagnosing and treating these illnesses. News releases, fact sheets and other NIAID-related materials are available on the NIAID website.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov/.

NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health®

NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Related Antibiotics Articles:

Antibiotics: City dwellers and children take the most
City dwellers take more antibiotics than people in rural areas; children and the elderly use them more often than middle-aged people; the use of antibiotics decreases as education increases, but only in rich countries: These are three of the more striking trends identified by researchers of the NRW Forschungskolleg ''One Health and Urban Transformation'' at the University of Bonn.
Metals could be the link to new antibiotics
Compounds containing metals could hold the key to the next generation of antibiotics to combat the growing threat of global antibiotic resistance.
Antibiotics from the sea
The team led by Prof. Christian Jogler of Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, has succeeded in cultivating several dozen marine bacteria in the laboratory -- bacteria that had previously been paid little attention.
Antibiotics not necessary for most toothaches, according to new ADA guideline
The American Dental Association (ADA) announced today a new guideline indicating that in most cases, antibiotics are not recommended for toothaches.
Antibiotics with novel mechanism of action discovered
Many life-threatening bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to existing antibiotics.
Resistance can spread even without the use of antibiotics
Antibiotic resistance does not spread only where and when antibiotics are used in large quantities, ETH researchers conclude from laboratory experiments.
Selective antibiotics following nature's example
Chemists from Konstanz develop selective agents to combat infectious diseases -- based on the structures of natural products
Antibiotics can inhibit skin lymphoma
New research from the LEO Foundation Skin Immunology Research Center at the University of Copenhagen shows, surprisingly, that antibiotics inhibit cancer in the skin in patients with rare type of lymphoma.
Antibiotics may treat endometriosis
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that treating mice with an antibiotic reduces the size of lesions caused by endometriosis.
How antibiotics help spread resistance
Bacteria can become insensitive to antibiotics by picking up resistance genes from the environment.
More Antibiotics News and Antibiotics Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Listen Again: Reinvention
Change is hard, but it's also an opportunity to discover and reimagine what you thought you knew. From our economy, to music, to even ourselves–this hour TED speakers explore the power of reinvention. Guests include OK Go lead singer Damian Kulash Jr., former college gymnastics coach Valorie Kondos Field, Stockton Mayor Michael Tubbs, and entrepreneur Nick Hanauer.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#562 Superbug to Bedside
By now we're all good and scared about antibiotic resistance, one of the many things coming to get us all. But there's good news, sort of. News antibiotics are coming out! How do they get tested? What does that kind of a trial look like and how does it happen? Host Bethany Brookeshire talks with Matt McCarthy, author of "Superbugs: The Race to Stop an Epidemic", about the ins and outs of testing a new antibiotic in the hospital.
Now Playing: Radiolab

Dispatch 6: Strange Times
Covid has disrupted the most basic routines of our days and nights. But in the middle of a conversation about how to fight the virus, we find a place impervious to the stalled plans and frenetic demands of the outside world. It's a very different kind of front line, where urgent work means moving slow, and time is marked out in tiny pre-planned steps. Then, on a walk through the woods, we consider how the tempo of our lives affects our minds and discover how the beats of biology shape our bodies. This episode was produced with help from Molly Webster and Tracie Hunte. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.