Nav: Home

Revealing the secrets of high-energy cosmic particles

September 10, 2020

The "IceCube" neutrino observatory deep in the ice of the South Pole has already brought spectacular new insights into cosmic incidents of extremely high energies. In order to investigate the cosmic origins of elementary particles with even higher energies, Prof. Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now started an international initiative to build a neutrino telescope several cubic kilometers in size in the northeastern Pacific.

Astronomers observe the light that comes to us from distant celestial objects to explore the Universe. However, light does not tell us much about the highest energy events beyond our Galaxy, such as the jets of active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts or supernovae, because photons in the upper gamma-ray range lose their extreme energies on their long way through the Universe through interaction with other particles.

Just like light, neutrinos traverse space at the speed of light (almost) but interact extremely rarely with other particles. They maintain their energy and direction, which makes them unique messengers of the highest energy universe.

Messenger of distant cosmic events

Since 2013, when the IceCube Neutrino Observatory detected extragalactic neutrinos for the first time, astrophysicists have been striving to understand from which cosmic sources they come and which physical mechanism has accelerated them to such extreme energies.

However, to solve the puzzle, more detectors with even larger volumes than that of the cubic-kilometre sized IceCube Observatory are required. Because neutrinos cannot be observed directly, only through Cherenkov radiation, the detectors must be located in ice or in water.

Initiative for a new neutrino telescope in the Pacific

Prof. Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center 1258 and Liesel-Beckmann Chair for Experimental Physics with Cosmic Particles at TUM, has now started an international initiative for a new neutrino telescope located in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Canada: the Pacific Ocean Neutrino Experiment (P-ONE).

For that purpose, Resconi has partnered with a facility of the University of Victoria, Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), one of the world's largest and most advanced cabled ocean observatories.

Ideal conditions for a neutrino observatory

The ONC network node in the Cascadia basin at a depth of 2660 meters was selected for P-ONE. The extensive abyssal plain offers ideal conditions for a neutrino observatory spanning several cubic kilometres.

In summer 2018, ONC anchored a first pathfinder experiment in the Cascadia basin: the STRAW (Strings for Absorption length in water) experiment, two 140-meter-long strings equipped with light emitters and sensors to determine the attenuation of light in the ocean water, a parameter crucial for the design of P-ONE. In September 2020, STRAW-b will be installed, a 500 m steel cable with additional detectors. Both experiments were developed and built by Resconi's research group at the TUM Physics Department.

Next steps in 2023/24

The first segment of P-ONE, the Pacific Ocean Neutrino Explorer, a ring with seven 1000-meter-long strings with 20 detectors each, is planned to be installed in ONC's marine operation season in 2023/24 in collaboration with various Canadian universities.

"Astrophysical neutrinos have unlocked new potential for significantly advancing our knowledge of the extreme universe," says Darren Grant, professor at the Michigan State University (USA), and spokesperson of the IceCube collaboration. "P-ONE represents a unique opportunity to demonstrate large-scale neutrino detector deployment in the deep ocean, a critical step towards reaching the goal of a globally connected neutrino observatory that would provide peak all-sky sensitivity to these ideal cosmic messengers."

Elisa Resconi anticipates P-ONE with its seven segments to be completed by the end of the decade. "The experiment will then be perfectly equipped to uncover the provenance of the extragalactic neutrinos," says Resconi, "but what's more, high-energy neutrinos also hold the potential to reveal the nature of dark matter."

The P-ONE project includes the Technical University of Munich (Germany), University of Victoria and Ocean Networks Canada, University of Alberta, Queen's University, Simon Fraser University (all Canada), Michigan State University (USA), European Southern Observatory, Goethe University Frankfurt, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, and Max Planck Institute for Physics (all Germany).

The project receives support from Ocean Networks Canada, an initiative of the University of Victoria funded in part by the Canada Foundation for Innovation. This work is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) through grant SFB 1258 "Neutrinos and Dark Matter in Astro- and Particle Physics" and the cluster of excellence "Origin and Structure of the Universe".

A special feature of the modules: They contain works of art by young international artists who create a connection between the earth and the deep sea and thus turn the pathfinder experiment into a unique underwater exhibition.
-end-
Publication:

M. Agostini et al.: The Pacific Ocean Neutrino Experiment

Nature Astronomy, Sept. 8, 2020 - DOI: 10.1038/s41550-020-1182-4

Technical University of Munich (TUM)

Related Neutrinos Articles:

Big answers from tiny particles
A team of physicists led by Kanazawa University demonstrate a theoretical mechanism that would explain the tiny value for the mass of neutrinos and point out that key operators of the mechanism can be probed by current and future experiments.
Physicists cast doubt on neutrino theory
University of Cincinnati physicists, as part of an international research team, are raising doubts about the existence of an exotic subatomic particle that failed to show up in twin experiments.
Exotic neutrinos will be difficult to ferret out
An international team tracking the 'new physics' neutrinos has checked the data of all the relevant experiments associated with neutrino detections against Standard Model extensions proposed by theorists.
Excess neutrinos and missing gamma rays?
A new model points to the coronoe of supermassive black holes at the cores of active galaxies to help explain the excess neutrinos observed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory.
Where neutrinos come from
Russian astrophysicists have come close to solving the mystery of where high-energy neutrinos come from in space.
Where did the antimatter go? Neutrinos shed promising new light
We live in a world of matter -- because matter overtook antimatter, though they were both created in equal amounts when our universe began.
Strongest evidence yet that neutrinos explain how the universe exists
New data throws more support behind the theory that neutrinos are the reason the universe is dominated by matter.
Why didn't the universe annihilate itself? Neutrinos may hold the answer
New results from an experiment called T2K suggest that physicists are closer than ever before to answering a major mystery: Why didn't the universe annihilate itself in a humungous burst of energy not long after the Big Bang?
T2K insight into the origin of the universe
Lancaster physicists working on the T2K major international experiment in Japan are closing in on the mystery of why there is so much matter in the universe, and so little antimatter.
Radar and ice could help detect an elusive subatomic particle
A new study published today in the journal Physical Review Letters shows, for the first time, an experiment that could detect a class of ultra-high-energy neutrinos using radar echoes.
More Neutrinos News and Neutrinos Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Listen Again: The Power Of Spaces
How do spaces shape the human experience? In what ways do our rooms, homes, and buildings give us meaning and purpose? This hour, TED speakers explore the power of the spaces we make and inhabit. Guests include architect Michael Murphy, musician David Byrne, artist Es Devlin, and architect Siamak Hariri.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#576 Science Communication in Creative Places
When you think of science communication, you might think of TED talks or museum talks or video talks, or... people giving lectures. It's a lot of people talking. But there's more to sci comm than that. This week host Bethany Brookshire talks to three people who have looked at science communication in places you might not expect it. We'll speak with Mauna Dasari, a graduate student at Notre Dame, about making mammals into a March Madness match. We'll talk with Sarah Garner, director of the Pathologists Assistant Program at Tulane University School of Medicine, who takes pathology instruction out of...
Now Playing: Radiolab

What If?
There's plenty of speculation about what Donald Trump might do in the wake of the election. Would he dispute the results if he loses? Would he simply refuse to leave office, or even try to use the military to maintain control? Last summer, Rosa Brooks got together a team of experts and political operatives from both sides of the aisle to ask a slightly different question. Rather than arguing about whether he'd do those things, they dug into what exactly would happen if he did. Part war game part choose your own adventure, Rosa's Transition Integrity Project doesn't give us any predictions, and it isn't a referendum on Trump. Instead, it's a deeply illuminating stress test on our laws, our institutions, and on the commitment to democracy written into the constitution. This episode was reported by Bethel Habte, with help from Tracie Hunte, and produced by Bethel Habte. Jeremy Bloom provided original music. Support Radiolab by becoming a member today at Radiolab.org/donate.     You can read The Transition Integrity Project's report here.