Helping Chinese farmers tackle erosion, increase profitsSeptember 13, 2017
On the steep farming slopes of China, Bozhi Wu and his research associates are finding ways to improve economic and environmental stability.
The research team studied the use of intercropping -- growing more than one crop per season -- on hilly land. They focused on a staple grain crop, corn. They compared intercropping the corn with either setaria grass, used in forage, or chili peppers. The results, you could say, will spice up Chinese farmers' methods.
Over a four year period, the research team measured runoff, erosion, and economic return for four different types of cropping systems. They compared only corn (maize), only chili, and then intercropping corn with chili and corn with setaria grass. The land researched was in the Yunnan Province of southwest China. All fields were rain-fed, with no irrigation.
"Reducing erosion can sustain or increase soil fertility and productivity," says Wu. "We researched intercropping systems that could reduce erosion, stabilize food production, and increase farmers' incomes."
Intercropping can benefit the soil in several ways. The additional soil cover provided by the second crop helps reduce erosion. The plants help soak up extra water and nutrients. This additional "pull" of the nutrients can help reduce runoff of the nutrients into adjacent land. Finally, growing different crops on the soil increases the biodiversity. This can help with pest and disease control. But Wu's research pointed to another huge incentive.
The research shows that farmers could economically benefit most from growing chili peppers with their corn. Research sites that had either chili or setaria crops on them showed less soil erosion and made more money. But chili peppers increased the economic gain the most. Bringing in an extra $1,000-$2,000 per year on each hectare farmed is a true economic benefit. (For reference, a hectare is about 2.5 acres, or about the size of a baseball field.)
And it's not just monetary benefits that intercropping brings. In southwest China, over 440,000 km2 are affected by erosion problems. To relate that to the United States, imagine if we lost all of California to erosion. That's still less than the estimated amount of land affected by southwest China's erosion problems! Some estimates put the economic loss of this erosion for Asia at $1.2 billion. So tackling erosion itself is a huge agricultural issue. Being able to do so while increasing profits is a huge benefit.
Setaria grass is currently used in China as a forage grass, with the animal husbandry industry rapidly growing. Due to its deeper root systems, intercropping with setaria did manage erosion and runoff better than intercropping with chili peppers. However, the environmental benefits of chili peppers combined with their economic benefits make them the clear recommendation by the research team.
Another research finding came in a drought year. During 2009, the province experienced a drought. All the experimental fields had a lower economic return that year -- except one. The intercropping of corn with chili actually held its economic value. This suggests that intercropping systems can generate more stable incomes than single crops.
Both intercropping systems -- chili and setaria with corn -- reduced erosion, and improved the economic return. Although these are new farming techniques, the research team thinks the economic benefits will help spread these new methods across southern China. Because of its faster economic impact, the main recommendation for hilly areas in southern China is corn intercropped with chili peppers. Of course, commodity prices change over time, so the design of intercropping systems will be dependent on market opportunities.
American Society of Agronomy
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Related Erosion Reading:
Erosion: Changing Earth's Surface (Amazing Science)
by Robin Koontz (Author), Matthew Harrad (Illustrator)
Did you know that rain, waves, wind, snow, and ice can change the shape of Earth’s surface? They can create valleys, sea stacks, caves, and rock arches. Learn about the natural forces of erosion and how they shape the land. View Details
Erosion (Reading Essentials in Science)
by Virginia Castleman (Author)
Describes the various causes and types of erosion and such effects as the Dust Bowl of the 1930s; relates them to the weather and wind, water, and ice; discusses how erosion can be controlled; and provides some simple experiments. View Details
Cracking Up: A Story About Erosion (Science Works)
by Jacqui Bailey (Author), Matthew Lilly (Illustrator)
Describes the process of erosion and how water, ice, wind, and sun wear away at Earth's surface. View Details
Weathering and Erosion (Science Readers: Content and Literacy)
by Torrey Maloof (Author)
The Earth's surface is always changing. Learn how weathering and erosion constantly reshapes the earth through wind, water, and more! Even people can drastically change the earth's surface. With the help of easy-to-read text and bright, colorful images, this reader simplifies challenging scientific topics while keeping students engaged from cover to cover. This reader also includes instructions for an engaging science activity where students can see what happens when land erodes. A helpful glossary and index are also included for additional support. View Details
Erosion (Let's Explore Science)
by Shirley Duke (Author)
Examines the different forces of erosion, such as wind, waves, acid rain, and glaciers and explains how those forces affect the topography of the earth. View Details
Erosion and Weathering (Rocks: The Hard Facts)
by Willa Dee (Author)
Discusses the different causes of erosion and weathering, how these phenomena create problems for people, and their role in the rock cycle. View Details
Dirt: The Erosion of Civilizations
by David R. Montgomery (Author)
Dirt, soil, call it what you want—it's everywhere we go. It is the root of our existence, supporting our feet, our farms, our cities. This fascinating yet disquieting book finds, however, that we are running out of dirt, and it's no laughing matter. An engaging natural and cultural history of soil that sweeps from ancient civilizations to modern times, Dirt: The Erosion of Civilizations explores the compelling idea that we are—and have long been—using up Earth's soil. Once bare of protective vegetation and exposed to wind and rain, cultivated soils erode bit by bit, slowly enough... View Details
Weathering and Erosion: Wearing Down Rocks (Rock It!)
by Steven M. Hoffman (Author)
Tree roots splitting a rock apart is an example of weathering, while a glacier pulling rocks along in its path is erosion. This informative book offers many examples of these two processes and outlines the key role they play in the rock cycle. View Details
Erosion (Princeton Series of Contemporary Poets)
by Jorie Graham (Author)
. . . . How clean
the mind is,
holy grave. It is this girl
della Francesca, unbuttoning
her blue dress,
her mantle of weather,
to go into
labor. Come, we can go in.
It is before
the birth of god. No-one
has risen yet
to the museums, to the assembly
and wings to the open air
market. This is
what the living do: go in.
It's a long... View Details
Erosion (Delta Science Readers)
by Delta Education (Publisher)
Erosion (delta science readers), excellent educational book! View Details