Best tactical approach to handling patients with simultaneous parasitic and HIV infectionSeptember 13, 2017
One of the most common waterborne diseases worldwide is cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic disease affecting the small intestine and possibly our airways. It is a common cause of diarrhoea in HIV-positive patients, who are known to have lower immunity. Now Kazeem Oare Okosun from Vaal University of Technology in South Africa and colleagues from Pakistan and Nigeria have developed a new model and numerical simulations to determine the optimal combination of prevention and treatment strategies for controlling both diseases in patients who have been co-infected. Their results, recently published in EPJ Plus, show a positive impact on the treatment and prevention for cryptosporidiosis alone, for HIV-AIDS alone, or for both together.
Although there are many mathematical models on HIV infection, there are far fewer for cryptosporidiosis. And, until now, there was no co-infection model for cryptosporidiosis and HIV-AIDS. The authors examined what happens to patients presenting both infections when they are subjected to five prevention methods and treatments for cryptosporidiosis alone, for HIV-AIDS alone and for both at specific intervals. They then explored their effects on the co-infection by performing numerical analyses.
They found that cryptosporidiosis preventions and treatment alone had no significant impact on reducing HIV-AIDS-related problems. By contrast, the prevention and treatment strategy for HIV-AIDS had a significant positive impact on the co-infected patients. Finally, applying both strategies at the same time resulted in reduction in all cases. They also found that, when both diseases were treated at the same time, it had a positive impact in cryptosporidiosis patients and on the level of environmental contamination, with no difference in the co-infected cases.
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The HIV virus increases the potency of the tuberculosis bacterium (Mtb) by affecting a central function of the immune system.
In an attempt to move beyond the current standard of care for HIV, which requires lifetime treatment and results in adverse effects like gut damage, researchers have coupled an antibody with standard-of-care antiretroviral treatment, finding that the duo kept virus levels very low -- almost undetectable -- in nonhuman primates.
An estimated 1.2 million people live with HIV in the United States, with nearly 13 percent being unaware of their infection.
Among nearly 900 serodifferent (one partner is HIV-positive, one is HIV-negative) heterosexual and men who have sex with men couples in which the HIV-positive partner was using suppressive antiretroviral therapy and who reported condomless sex, during a median follow-up of 1.3 years per couple, there were no documented cases of within-couple HIV transmission, according to a study appearing in the July 12 issue of JAMA, an HIV/AIDS theme issue.
A team led by researchers from UCSF and Yale has found that half of people newly infected with HIV experience neurologic issues.
A study published on March 17 in PLOS Pathogens suggests that it is not a general weakening of the immune system by HIV that initially leads to loss of Mtb control, but rather that HIV is associated with a failure to prevent harmful immune responses.
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