Penn researchers lay groundwork to better understanding optical properties of glassSeptember 13, 2017
Glass is everywhere. Whether someone is gazing out a window or scrolling through a smartphone, odds are that there is a layer of glass between them and whatever it is they're looking at.
Despite being around for at least 5,000 years, there is still a lot that is unknown about this material, such as how certain glasses form and how they achieve certain properties. Better understanding of this could lead to innovations in technology, such as scratch-free coatings and glass with different mechanical properties.
Over the past few years, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have been looking at properties of stable glasses, closely packed forms of glasses which are produced by depositing molecules from a vapor phase onto a cold substrate.
"There have been a lot of questions," said Zahra Fakhraai, an associate professor of chemistry in Penn's School of Arts & Sciences, "about whether this is analogous of the same amorphous state of naturally aged glasses such as amber, which are formed by just cooling a liquid and aging it for many, many years."
In order to answer these questions, Fahkraai and Ph.D. student Tianyi Liu collaborated with chemistry professor Patrick Walsh who designed and synthesized a new special molecule that is perfectly round with a spherical shape. According to Fakhraai, these unique molecules can never align themselves with any substrate as they are deposited. Because of this, the researchers expected the glasses to be amorphous and isotropic, meaning that their constituent particles, whether they are atoms, colloids or grains, are arranged in a way that has no overarching pattern or order.
Surprisingly, the researchers noticed that these stable glasses are birefringent, meaning the index of refraction of light is different in directions parallel and normal to the substrate, which wouldn't be expected in a round material. Their results were published in Physical Review Letters.
With birefringence, light shined in one direction will break differently than light shined from a different direction. This effect is often harnessed in liquid crystal displays: changing the orientation of the material causes light to interact differently with it, producing optical effects. In most deposited glasses, this is a result of molecules aligning in a particular direction as they condensate from the vapor phase into a deep glassy state.
The birefringence patterns of the stable glasses were strange, Fakhraai said, as the researchers did not expect any orientation of these round molecules in the material.
After teaming up with physics professor James Kikkawa and Ph.D. student Annemarie Exarhos, who did photoluminescence experiments to look at the orientation of the molecules, and chemistry professor Joseph Subotnick, who helped with the simulations aimed at looking at the crystal structure and calculating the index of refraction of the crystal which allowed them to work out the math of the degree of birefringence or ordering in the amorphous state, the researchers confirmed their hunch that there was no orientation in the material.
Despite measuring zero order in the glass, the scientists still saw an amount of birefringence analogous to having up to 30 percent of the molecules perfectly ordered. Through their experiments, they found that this is due to the layer-by-layer nature of the deposition that allows molecules to pack more tightly in the direction normal to the surface during the deposition. The denser the glass, the higher the value of birefringence. This process can be controlled by changing the substrate temperature that controls the degree of densification.
"We were able to show that this is a unique kind of order that is emergent from the process," Fakhraai said. "This is a new sort of packing that's very unique because you don't have any orientation, but you can still manipulate the molecular distances on average and still have a random but birefringent packing overall. And so this teaches us a lot about the process of how you can actually access these lower state phases but also provides a way of engineering optical properties without necessarily inducing an order or structure in the material."
Since the stressors are distributed differently in and out of plane, these glasses could have different mechanical properties, which may be useful in coatings and technology. It may be possible to manipulate the orientation of a glass or its layering to give it certain properties, such as anti-scratch coatings.
"We expect that if we were to indent the glass surface with something," Fakhraai said, "it would have different toughness versus indenting it on the side. This could change its fracture patterns or hardness or elastic properties. I think understanding how shape, orientation and packing could affect the mechanics of these coatings is one of the places where interesting applications could emerge."
According to Fakhraai, one of the most exciting pieces of this research is the fundamental aspect of now being able to show that there can be amorphous phases that are high density. She hopes she and other researchers can apply their understanding from studying these systems to what would happen in highly aged glass.
"This tells us that we can actually make glasses that have packings that would be relevant to very well-aged glass," Fakhraai said. "This opens up the possibility of better fundamentally understanding the process by which we can make stable glasses."
University of Pennsylvania
Related Glass Articles:
With the help of some mathematical wizardry borrowed from particle physics -- plus around 30 pages of algebraic calculations, all done by hand -- Duke postdoctoral fellow Sho Yaida has laid to rest a 30-year-old mystery about the nature of glass.
3-D-printing allows extremely small and complex structures to be made even in small series.
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside's Bourns College of Engineering have used waste glass bottles and a low-cost chemical process to create nanosilicon anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.
A new method uncovers a four-decade mystery about metallic glass that could allow researchers to fine-tune its properties to develop new materials.
The transport of heat in amorphous materials is largely determined by the behavior of phonons -- quasiparticles associated with the collective vibrations of atoms. Researchers from Georgia Tech developed a new way to calculate the heat contribution of phonons using computer simulations.
Rice University scientists explain how and why shear bands form in metallic glasses and make them more prone to break.
Princeton University researchers have developed a computational model for creating a 'perfect glass' that never crystallizes -- even at absolute zero.
Researchers at the Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have demonstrated graphene coating protects glass from corrosion.
A group of Drexel biomedical engineers use functional near-infrared spectroscopy to measure mental workload as subjects navigate a college campus.
Australian researchers at the University of Adelaide have developed a method for embedding light-emitting nanoparticles into glass without losing any of their unique properties -- a major step towards 'smart glass' applications such as 3-D display screens or remote radiation sensors.
Related Glass Reading:
Glass (Crank Trilogy)
by Ellen Hopkins (Author)
Kristina’s descent continues in the New York Times bestselling sequel to Crank, now with a refreshed look and a trade paperback trim size.
One little bit, my heart revs
high, then settles into quick-
step mode. How I’ve missed
that race and pound. How
I’ve missed the lack of control.
Crank. Glass. Ice. Crystal. Whatever you call it, it’s all the same: a monster. Kristina thinks she can control it. Now with a baby to care for, she is determined to be the one deciding when and how much, the one... View Details
The Glass Castle: A Memoir
by Jeannette Walls (Author)
Now a major motion picture from Lionsgate starring Brie Larson, Woody Harrelson, and Naomi Watts.
MORE THAN SEVEN YEARS ON THE NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER LIST
The perennially bestselling, extraordinary, one-of-a-kind, “nothing short of spectacular” (Entertainment Weekly) memoir from one of the world’s most gifted storytellers.
The Glass Castle is a remarkable memoir of resilience and redemption, and a revelatory look into a family at once deeply dysfunctional and uniquely vibrant. When sober, Jeannette’s brilliant and charismatic... View Details
Glass Houses: A Novel (Chief Inspector Gamache Novel)
by Louise Penny (Author)
An instant New York Times Bestseller and August 2017 LibraryReads pick!
“Penny’s absorbing, intricately plotted 13th Gamache novel proves she only gets better at pursuing dark truths with compassion and grace.” ―PEOPLE
“Louise Penny wrote the book on escapist mysteries.” ―The New York Times Book Review
“You won't want Louise Penny's latest to end….Any plot summary of Penny’s novels inevitably falls short of conveying the dark magic of this series.... It takes nerve and skill ― as... View Details
A History of the World in 6 Glasses
by Tom Standage (Author)
From beer to Coca-Cola, the six drinks that have helped shape human history.
Throughout human history, certain drinks have done much more than just quench thirst. As Tom Standage relates with authority and charm, six of them have had a surprisingly pervasive influence on the course of history, becoming the defining drink during a pivotal historical period.
A History of the World in 6 Glasses tells the story of humanity from the Stone Age to the 21st century through the lens of beer, wine, spirits, coffee, tea, and cola. Beer was first made in the Fertile... View Details
Glass House: The 1% Economy and the Shattering of the All-American Town
by Brian Alexander (Author)
For readers of Hillbilly Elegy and Strangers in Their Own Land
**A New York Post Must-Read Book, a Newsweek Best New Book, one of The Week's 20 Books to Read in 2017, one of Bustle's 16 Best Nonfiction Books Coming in February 2017**
"A devastating read...For anyone wondering why swing-state America voted against the establishment in 2016, Mr. Alexander supplies plenty of answers." ―The Wall Street Journal
"This book hunts bigger game." ―Laura Miller, Slate
No play in the modern theatre has so captured the imagination and heart of the American public as Tennessee Williams's The Glass Menagerie.Menagerie was Williams's first popular success and launched the brilliant, if somewhat controversial, career of our pre-eminent lyric playwright. Since its premiere in Chicago in 1944, with the legendary Laurette Taylor in the role of Amanda, the play has been the bravura piece for great actresses from Jessica Tandy to Joanne Woodward, and is studied and performed in classrooms and theatres around the world.... View Details
Glass Sword (Red Queen)
by Victoria Aveyard (Author)
The #1 New York Times bestselling series!
The electrifying second installment in the Red Queen series has all the drama, intrigue, and steamy romance that made it a #1 New York Times bestseller.
Mare Barrow's blood is red—the color of common folk—but her Silver ability, the power to control lightning, has turned her into a weapon that the royal court tries to control. The crown calls her an impossibility, a fake, but as she makes her escape from Maven, the prince—the friend—who betrayed her, Mare uncovers something startling:... View Details
Ninja Coffee Bar Glass Carafe Replacement (CFCARAFEG)
The Ninja Glass Carafe is specially designed with an ergonomic handle, a beautiful stainless steel accent and dripless pouring. The Ninja 43oz Glass Carafe is a tempered glass that is perfect for either iced or hot Ninja Coffee Bar coffee. It includes a brew through lid that circulates coffee throughout the brew for even consistency, so the first cup is as good as your last! The carafe spout was thoughtfully designed so you can pour fast or slow with ease and complete control. View Details
Glass: A Short History
by David Whitehouse (Author)
Illustrated with 120 superb pieces, Glass: A Short History brings to life a centuries-old craft that has served many purposes, styles, and cultures. Until the first century BC, glass was made only in Western Asia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean regions; its manufacture then spread to China and other areas. The peoples of the Roman Empire included the most versatile glassmakers in the ancient world, leading to both widely available low-cost glassware and stunning luxury glass. During the Middle Ages, Islamic glassworkers decorated their fine cut glass with gilding and... View Details
Crown of Midnight (Throne of Glass)
by Sarah J. Maas (Author)
Celaena Sardothien is the king's Champion-yet she is far from loyal to the crown, for the man she serves is bent on evil. But working against her master in secret is no easy task. As Celaena tries to untangle the mysteries buried within the glass castle, she can trust no one, not even her supposed allies Crown Prince Dorian, Captain of the Guard Chaol, and foreign princess Nehemia.
Then, an unspeakable tragedy shatters Celaena's world. She must decide once and for all where her loyalties lie . . . and whom she will fight for.
An action-packed and romantic adventure that... View Details