Both aerobic and resistance exercise improved blood sugar control in people with diabetes

September 17, 2007

In a new randomized controlled trial, both aerobic and resistance exercise improved glycemic/blood sugar control in people with type 2 diabetes. The greatest improvements came from combined aerobic and resistance training.

The study included 251 adults, between ages 39 and 70, who were not exercising regularly and had type 2 diabetes. Participants were assigned to one of four groups: performing 45 minutes aerobic training three times per week, 45 minutes of resistance training three times per week, 45 minutes each of both three times per week, or no exercise.

Each participant was evaluated on changes in A1c value, a number that reflects blood sugar concentrations over the previous two or three months, and is expressed as a percent. An absolute decrease of 1.0 percent in A1c value (e.g. from 8.5 percent to 7.5 percent) would be associated with a 15 percent to 20 percent decrease in risk of heart attack or stroke, and a 25 percent to 40 percent decrease in risk of diabetes-related eye disease or kidney disease.

Both the aerobic and resistance training groups had improved blood sugar control A1c value decreased by about 0.5 percent. The group that did both kinds of exercise had about twice as much improvement as either other group alone--A1c value decreased by 0.97 percent compared to the control group. The control group that did not exercise had no change in A1c value.

"We know that aerobic exercise improves glycemic control," said Ronald Sigal, MD, the lead author of the study. "But we didn't really know too much about what kind of exercise is the most beneficial and how much of it. In particular there wasn't much known about resistance exercises when we started planning this study. At the time, some thought that resistance exercise is not useful or even dangerous for some people with diabetes."

Dr. Sigal, now an associate professor of medicine and cardiac sciences at University of Calgary, oversaw the 26-week study, conducted in centers in Canada.

"And even for people who had fairly good blood sugar control at the beginning of our study, those who did both aerobic and resistance exercise had further improvements in glucose control."

"The bottom line," said Dr. Sigal, "is that doing both aerobic and resistance exercise is the way to maximize the effects of exercise on blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes."

In an accompanying editorial, William E. Kraus, MD and Benjamin D. Levine, MD, say, "Imagine an inexpensive pill that could decrease the hemoglobin A1c value by 1 percentage point, reduce cardiovascular death by 25 percent, and substantially improve functional capacity (strength, endurance, and bone density). Diabetes experts would be quick to incorporate this pill into practice guidelines and performance measures for diabetes. (These) study results should simulate all clinicians to include exercise assessment and counseling into every clinic visit."
-end-
The study, "Effects of Aerobic Training, Resistance Training, or Both on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes," and the editorial, "Exercise Training for Diabetes: The "Strength" of the Evidence," will be published in the in the Sept. 18, 2007, edition of Annals of Internal Medicine.

Annals of Internal Medicine (www.annals.org) is one of the most widely cited peer-reviewed medical journals in the world. The journal has been published for 80 years and accepts only seven percent of the original research studies submitted for publication. Annals of Internal Medicine is published by the American College of Physicians (www.acponline.org), the largest medical specialty organization and the second-largest physician group in the United States.

ACP members include 124,000 internal medicine physicians (internists), related subspecialists, and medical students. Internists specialize in the prevention, detection, and treatment of illness in adults.

American College of Physicians

Related Diabetes Articles from Brightsurf:

New diabetes medication reduced heart event risk in those with diabetes and kidney disease
Sotagliflozin - a type of medication known as an SGLT2 inhibitor primarily prescribed for Type 2 diabetes - reduces the risk of adverse cardiovascular events for patients with diabetes and kidney disease.

Diabetes drug boosts survival in patients with type 2 diabetes and COVID-19 pneumonia
Sitagliptin, a drug to lower blood sugar in type 2 diabetes, also improves survival in diabetic patients hospitalized with COVID-19, suggests a multicenter observational study in Italy.

Making sense of diabetes
Throughout her 38-year nursing career, Laurel Despins has progressed from a bedside nurse to a clinical nurse specialist and has worked in medical, surgical and cardiac intensive care units.

Helping teens with type 1 diabetes improve diabetes control with MyDiaText
Adolescence is a difficult period of development, made more complex for those with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Diabetes-in-a-dish model uncovers new insights into the cause of type 2 diabetes
Researchers have developed a novel 'disease-in-a-dish' model to study the basic molecular factors that lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, uncovering the potential existence of major signaling defects both inside and outside of the classical insulin signaling cascade, and providing new perspectives on the mechanisms behind insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and possibly opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics for the disease.

Tele-diabetes to manage new-onset diabetes during COVID-19 pandemic
Two new case studies highlight the use of tele-diabetes to manage new-onset type 1 diabetes in an adult and an infant during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Genetic profile may predict type 2 diabetes risk among women with gestational diabetes
Women who go on to develop type 2 diabetes after having gestational, or pregnancy-related, diabetes are more likely to have particular genetic profiles, suggests an analysis by researchers at the National Institutes of Health and other institutions.

Maternal gestational diabetes linked to diabetes in children
Children and youth of mothers who had gestational diabetes during pregnancy are at increased risk of diabetes themselves, according to new research published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Two diabetes medications don't slow progression of type 2 diabetes in youth
In youth with impaired glucose tolerance or recent-onset type 2 diabetes, neither initial treatment with long-acting insulin followed by the drug metformin, nor metformin alone preserved the body's ability to make insulin, according to results published online June 25 in Diabetes Care.

People with diabetes visit the dentist less frequently despite link between diabetes, oral health
Adults with diabetes are less likely to visit the dentist than people with prediabetes or without diabetes, finds a new study led by researchers at NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing and East Carolina University's Brody School of Medicine.

Read More: Diabetes News and Diabetes Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.