Nav: Home

New study estimates nearly 90,000 cancer cases diagnosed in adolescents and young adults

September 17, 2020

ATLANTA - September 17, 2020 - A new report examining cancer in adolescents and young adults (AYAs), defined as diagnoses occurring during ages 15 to 39, provides updated estimates of the contemporary cancer burden in this age group, predicting that 89,500 cases and 9,270 deaths will occur in 2020 in the United States. The report appears in the American Cancer Society journal: CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.

AYAs with cancer are frequently grouped with older or younger patient populations and/or presented in aggregate, masking the wide heterogeneity in cancer occurrence within this population. To address this issue, American Cancer Society investigators also examined cancer incidence, survival, and mortality among AYAs by race/ethnicity and for smaller age groups (15-19, 20-29, and 30-39).

Cancer incidence rates among AYAs are highest in those who are non-Hispanic white (83 per 100,000 population during 2012-2016) and lowest in those who are Asian/Pacific Islander (54 per 100,000 population) for both sexes. This reflects higher rates in non-Hispanic white AYAs for thyroid cancer, testicular tumors, and melanoma compared to other major racial/ethnic groups. Unlike adults ages 40 and older, however, female breast cancer incidence rates in non-Hispanic Black AYAs are 14% higher than those in non-Hispanic white AYAs (25.9 vs 22.3 per 100,000 population).

The authors also note that despite patterns in overall incidence, cancer mortality rates are highest in non-Hispanic Black AYAs, particularly females (12.6 per 100,000 vs 9.2 in non-Hispanic white persons), reflecting substantial survival disparities compared to those who are non-Hispanic white. The largest 5-year cancer-specific survival disparities occur among those who are non-Hispanic Black compared with non-Hispanic whites for acute lymphocytic leukemia (57% vs 71%, respectively) and female breast cancer (78% vs 89%, respectively).

By age group, the cancer incidence rate in AYAs increased during the most recent decade (2007-2016) overall but showed signs of stabilizing among men in their 20s. The rise is largely driven by thyroid cancer incidence rates, which rose by approximately 3% annually among those aged 20 to 39 and 4% among those aged 15 to 19 years. Incidence increased for several cancers linked to obesity, including kidney (3% across all age groups), uterine corpus (3% in group aged 20-39 years), and colorectum (0.9%-1.5% in the group aged 20-39 years).

In contrast to incidence, cancer mortality rates among AYAs for all cancers combined declined in the past decade (2008 through 2017) by 1% across sex and age groups except females aged 30 to 39, among whom rates remained stable due to a flattening of declines in breast cancer mortality. Mirroring incidence, mortality rates increased during the most recent 10 data years (2008-2017) for colorectal and uterine corpus cancers.

Other highlights from the report include:
  • Adolescents (aged 15-19 years) are more likely to be diagnosed with cancers associated with childhood, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, while those aged 20 to 39 years are more likely to be diagnosed with adult cancers, such as breast. Thyroid cancer is the only cancer predicted to rank among the three most commonly diagnosed cancers in each AYA age group in 2020.

  • Leukemia continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in ages 15 to 29 years. Among ages 30-39 years, breast (women) and colorectal (men) cancers are the leading cancer causes of death.

  • Melanoma incidence rates during 2007-2016 rapidly declined in ages 15 to 29 (4%-6% annually, on average). However, among ages 30-39 years, rates declined only slightly among men and remained flat among women.

  • Overall 5-year relative survival in AYAs for all cancers combined (83%-86% across age groups) is similar to that in children (84%), but masks lower survival for several cancer types, such as acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL; 60% vs 91%, respectively).
The report notes an increasing body of evidence that tumors in AYAs are molecularly distinct from those in younger or older populations, suggesting differences in etiology and in treatment options. In addition, studies have shown that compared to childhood cancer survivors, AYAs have a higher risk of progression and death from their original cancer. Compared to older cancer patients, AYAs have a higher risk of long-term and late effects including infertility, sexual dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and other future cancers. However, further research in these areas is needed.

The authors say that progress in reducing cancer morbidity and mortality among AYAs could be improved with more equitable access to health care, as AYAs are more likely than other age groups in the U.S. to be uninsured. Increased clinical trial enrollment, expanded research, and improved awareness among clinicians and patients of early symptoms and signs of cancer could also accelerate progress.

"Although there has been rapid progress in the scientific understanding of cancer in AYAs over the last decade, several research gaps in etiology, basic biology, treatment, and survivorship remain," write the authors. "AYAs diagnosed with cancer also continue to face challenges in health care access during early life transitions, which can negatively impact treatment."
-end-
Article: Miller KD, Fidler-Benaoudia M, Keegan TH, Hipp HS, Jemal A, Siegel RL. Cancer Statistics for Adolescents and Young Adults, 2020. CA Cancer J Clin 2020; doi: 10.3322/caac.21637.

URL upon embargo: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.3322/caac.21637

American Cancer Society

Related Cancer Articles:

UCI researchers uncover cancer cell vulnerabilities; may lead to better cancer therapies
A new University of California, Irvine-led study reveals a protein responsible for genetic changes resulting in a variety of cancers, may also be the key to more effective, targeted cancer therapy.
Breast cancer treatment costs highest among young women with metastic cancer
In a fight for their lives, young women, age 18-44, spend double the amount of older women to survive metastatic breast cancer, according to a large statewide study by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Cancer mortality continues steady decline, driven by progress against lung cancer
The cancer death rate declined by 29% from 1991 to 2017, including a 2.2% drop from 2016 to 2017, the largest single-year drop in cancer mortality ever reported.
Stress in cervical cancer patients associated with higher risk of cancer-specific mortality
Psychological stress was associated with a higher risk of cancer-specific mortality in women diagnosed with cervical cancer.
Cancer-sniffing dogs 97% accurate in identifying lung cancer, according to study in JAOA
The next step will be to further fractionate the samples based on chemical and physical properties, presenting them back to the dogs until the specific biomarkers for each cancer are identified.
Moffitt Cancer Center researchers identify one way T cell function may fail in cancer
Moffitt Cancer Center researchers have discovered a mechanism by which one type of immune cell, CD8+ T cells, can become dysfunctional, impeding its ability to seek and kill cancer cells.
More cancer survivors, fewer cancer specialists point to challenge in meeting care needs
An aging population, a growing number of cancer survivors, and a projected shortage of cancer care providers will result in a challenge in delivering the care for cancer survivors in the United States if systemic changes are not made.
New cancer vaccine platform a potential tool for efficacious targeted cancer therapy
Researchers at the University of Helsinki have discovered a solution in the form of a cancer vaccine platform for improving the efficacy of oncolytic viruses used in cancer treatment.
American Cancer Society outlines blueprint for cancer control in the 21st century
The American Cancer Society is outlining its vision for cancer control in the decades ahead in a series of articles that forms the basis of a national cancer control plan.
Oncotarget: Cancer pioneer employs physics to approach cancer in last research article
In the cover article of Tuesday's issue of Oncotarget, James Frost, MD, PhD, Kenneth Pienta, MD, and the late Donald Coffey, Ph.D., use a theory of physical and biophysical symmetry to derive a new conceptualization of cancer.
More Cancer News and Cancer Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Listen Again: The Power Of Spaces
How do spaces shape the human experience? In what ways do our rooms, homes, and buildings give us meaning and purpose? This hour, TED speakers explore the power of the spaces we make and inhabit. Guests include architect Michael Murphy, musician David Byrne, artist Es Devlin, and architect Siamak Hariri.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#576 Science Communication in Creative Places
When you think of science communication, you might think of TED talks or museum talks or video talks, or... people giving lectures. It's a lot of people talking. But there's more to sci comm than that. This week host Bethany Brookshire talks to three people who have looked at science communication in places you might not expect it. We'll speak with Mauna Dasari, a graduate student at Notre Dame, about making mammals into a March Madness match. We'll talk with Sarah Garner, director of the Pathologists Assistant Program at Tulane University School of Medicine, who takes pathology instruction out of...
Now Playing: Radiolab

What If?
There's plenty of speculation about what Donald Trump might do in the wake of the election. Would he dispute the results if he loses? Would he simply refuse to leave office, or even try to use the military to maintain control? Last summer, Rosa Brooks got together a team of experts and political operatives from both sides of the aisle to ask a slightly different question. Rather than arguing about whether he'd do those things, they dug into what exactly would happen if he did. Part war game part choose your own adventure, Rosa's Transition Integrity Project doesn't give us any predictions, and it isn't a referendum on Trump. Instead, it's a deeply illuminating stress test on our laws, our institutions, and on the commitment to democracy written into the constitution. This episode was reported by Bethel Habte, with help from Tracie Hunte, and produced by Bethel Habte. Jeremy Bloom provided original music. Support Radiolab by becoming a member today at Radiolab.org/donate.     You can read The Transition Integrity Project's report here.