Nav: Home

Solidarity between good and justice keeps a society together

September 22, 2017

Since ancient times, philanthropy or unconditional contribution, and reciprocity or retribution, such as "an eye for an eye," have been and remain common human actions. Thus far, many researchers support the promotion of reciprocity and the suppression of philanthropism, as the latter is favorable to evil. However, Soka University researcher Isamu Okada and his collaborators Tatsuya Sasaki (University of Vienna) and Yutaka Nakai (Shibaura Institute of Technology) have found that the solidarity of philanthropism and reciprocity is necessary to maintain cooperative societies. Their paper was published in Scientific Reports on August 29, 2017.

Most theoretical studies on reciprocity assume a condition of perfect observation. In this situation, every action by every person has a simultaneous effect and no one is permitted to have a different assessment. Although the perfect observation assumption is an unrealistic constraint, this assumption cannot be completely disregarded because analysis then becomes extremely difficult owing to an increased number of variables.

Okada's team succeeded in analyzing a model that has no assumption of perfect observation using computer simulations. According to their results, a norm of solo reciprocity is not sufficient to maintain cooperation, but it can maintain cooperation in solidarity with unconditional cooperators. Moreover, they reveal that a society with a solidarity between norms is more cooperative than that with solo reciprocity.

"So far, philanthropy is excluded by researchers because it is a second-order free-rider that does not punish non-cooperative actions . However, the discussion is solely under an assumption of perfect observation," says Okada. "The solidarity of good and justice is not only a moral statement, but also has shown its importance from an academic perspective."

Soka University

Related Reciprocity Articles:

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL
EPFL researchers have found a way around what was considered a fundamental limitation of physics for over 100 years.
Achieving near-perfect optical isolation using opto-mechanical transparency
Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing.
Differences in levels of trust and power can affect buyer-supplier performance
Mutual trust does not appear on the ledger sheets of buyers and suppliers, but researchers suggest that levels of trust between companies may be an important influence on how they operate and perform.
Evolution of cooperation through longer memory
When we make a decision about whether or not to cooperate with someone, we usually base our decision on past experiences.
Computation scientists find social norms required for the transition to cooperative societies
What role the diversity of social norms can play in the process of evolving cooperation by means of evolutionary computation methods.
Two-thirds of Americans see docs who got paid by drug companies: Drexel University study
A new study led by Drexel University found that a majority of Americans visited doctors in the past year who had been paid or given gifts by pharmaceutical or medical device companies -- but very few patients knew about it.
What do your co-workers really think of you?
Everyday in the workplace, colleagues actively compete for a limited amount of perks, including raises, promotions, bonuses and recognition.
New mechanical metamaterials can block symmetry of motion, findings suggest
Engineers and scientists at The University of Texas at Austin and the AMOLF institute in the Netherlands have invented the first mechanical metamaterials that easily transfer motion effortlessly in one direction while blocking it in the other.
More order with less judgment: An optimal theory of the evolution of cooperation
A research team led by mathematician Tatsuya Sasaki from the University of Vienna presents a new optimal theory of the evolution of reputation-based cooperation.
New tool promotes collaboration and productivity
Pair Research simplifies the process of asking and receiving help.

Related Reciprocity Reading:

Cultural Reciprocity in Special Education: Building Family?Professional Relationships
by Maya Kalyanpur Ph.D. (Author), Beth Harry Ph.D. (Author)

To succeed in increasingly diverse classrooms, tomorrow's special educators need explicit training on working effectively with all families. Prepare the next generation of teachers with this accessible text, developed by two highly respected experts on cultural and linguistic diversity and inclusive education.

Ideal for use as a supplementary textbook in a wide range of courses related to special education, this book gives educators a practical framework for cultural reciprocity—a process that helps professionals and families examine their own values, respect each... View Details

by Lawrence C. Becker (Author)

"Reciprocity is an exciting book—it forces its readers to rethink some important issues in recent moral philosophy."—Ruth Anna Putnam, Ethics

"By reciprocity Becker understands a complex disposition to make suitable return for the benefit we receive from others, to resist the harm others inflict on us rather than retaliate for it, and to make restitution for the harm we ourselves cause. . . . This is a clearly written book which makes fresh contributions to a number of topics."—A. D. M. Walker, Philosophical Books
View Details

A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution
by Samuel Bowles (Author), Herbert Gintis (Author)

Why do humans, uniquely among animals, cooperate in large numbers to advance projects for the common good? Contrary to the conventional wisdom in biology and economics, this generous and civic-minded behavior is widespread and cannot be explained simply by far-sighted self-interest or a desire to help close genealogical kin.

In A Cooperative Species, Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis--pioneers in the new experimental and evolutionary science of human behavior--show that the central issue is not why selfish people act generously, but instead how genetic and cultural... View Details

Reciprocity (Breach Book 3)
by K.I. Lynn

The final installment of the Breach Trilogy!

Things are finally looking up for Nathan and Lila. Though separated at work, their life together is just beginning.

They’re working hard to lock up Lila’s past, when Nathan’s comes knocking at the door with a gift—a warning that happiness can, and will, be taken away.

Is running away the only option to stay alive? Can they ever find the peace they deserve?

The battle for survival has begun. View Details

The Reciprocity Advantage: A New Way to Partner for Innovation and Growth
by Bob Johansen (Author), Karl Ronn (Author)

A powerful new kind of competitive advantage is now possible thanks to technological and social disruptions that are already occurring. These disruptions revolutionize how companies can partner to create new growth. The Reciprocity Advantage shares a model for creating that growth: define your right-of-way (the underutilized resources you already own that you can share with others), partner to do what you can’t do alone, experiment to learn, and scale the new business at low risk.

Reciprocity and advantage are words that are not normally seen together, but reciprocity—giving now... View Details

Trust and Reciprocity: Interdisciplinary Lessons for Experimental Research (The Russell Sage Foundation Series on Trust, Vol. 6)
by Elinor Ostrom (Editor), James Walker (Editor)

Trust is essential to economic and social transactions of all kinds, from choosing a marriage partner, to taking a job, and even buying a used car. The benefits to be gained from such transactions originate in the willingness of individuals to take risks by placing trust in others to behave in cooperative and non-exploitative ways. But how do humans decide whether or not to trust someone? Using findings from evolutionary psychology, game theory, and laboratory experiments, Trust and Reciprocity examines the importance of reciprocal relationships in explaining the origins of trust... View Details

Electromagnetic Reciprocity in Antenna Theory
by Martin Stumpf (Author)

Provides a self-contained account on applications of electromagnetic reciprocity theorems to multiport antenna systems

The reciprocity theorem is among the most intriguing concepts in wave field theory and has become an integral part of almost all standard textbooks on electromagnetic (EM) theory. This book makes use of the theorem to quantitatively describe EM interactions concerning general multiport antenna systems. It covers a general reciprocity-based description of antenna systems, their EM scattering properties, and further related aspects.

Beginning with an... View Details

Riffs and Reciprocities: Prose Pairs
by Stephen Dunn (Author)

"This Astaire-like glide through our not-so-idle talk is a pleasure."―Publishers Weekly

Stephen Dunn experiments with short, related pieces that play off each other in the manner of jazz improvisations. The resulting pairs cover such subjects as "Scruples/Saints," "Hypocrisy/Precision," and "Anger/Generosity." The wisdom and startling turns we've come to expect from Dunn are everywhere in the ninety miniatures (forty-five pairs) that comprise this volume. View Details

Enabling Fidelity to God: Perseverance in Hebrews in Light of the Reciprocity Systems of the Ancient Mediterranean World (Paternoster Biblical Monographs)
by Jason A. Whitlark (Author), Charles H. Talbert (Foreword)

The primary focus of this book is to demonstrate how Hebrews represents, in view of its historical and religious context, human fidelity to God. Thus, the basic thesis is twofold. First, with regard to the divine-human relationship in the ancient Mediterranean world, the belief in the reciprocity rationale was one primary dynamic for establishing fidelity to a relationship and has been applied by some scholars, such as David deSilva, to Hebrews as the way to understand its strategy for creating perseverance. A major problem with the application of this dynamic is that a common optimistic... View Details

Reciprocity and Ritual: Homer and Tragedy in the Developing City-State (Clarendon Paperbacks)
by Richard Seaford (Author)

This is an exciting and entirely new synthesis, combining anthropology, political and social history, and a close reading of central Greek texts, to account for two of the most significant hallmarks in Homeric epic and Athenian tragedy: the representation of ritual, and codes of reciprocity. Both genres are pervaded by these features, yet each treats them in entirely different ways. In this book, Seaford shows that these differences cannot be accounted for in merely literary terms, but require a historical explanation. Challenging, thoroughly lucid, and at times controversial, this lively and... View Details

Best Science Podcasts 2018

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2018. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

The Consequences Of Racism
What does it mean to be judged before you walk through the door? What are the consequences? This week, TED speakers delve into the ways racism impacts our lives, from education, to health, to safety. Guests include poet and writer Clint Smith, writer and activist Miriam Zoila Pérez, educator Dena Simmons, and former prosecutor Adam Foss.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#465 How The Nose Knows
We've all got a nose but how does it work? Why do we like some smells and not others, and why can we all agree that some smells are good and some smells are bad, while others are dependant on personal or cultural preferences? We speak with Asifa Majid, Professor of Language, Communication and Cultural Cognition at Radboud University, about the intersection of culture, language, and smell. And we level up on our olfactory neuroscience with University of Pennsylvania Professor Jay Gottfried.