Nav: Home

Solidarity between good and justice keeps a society together

September 22, 2017

Since ancient times, philanthropy or unconditional contribution, and reciprocity or retribution, such as "an eye for an eye," have been and remain common human actions. Thus far, many researchers support the promotion of reciprocity and the suppression of philanthropism, as the latter is favorable to evil. However, Soka University researcher Isamu Okada and his collaborators Tatsuya Sasaki (University of Vienna) and Yutaka Nakai (Shibaura Institute of Technology) have found that the solidarity of philanthropism and reciprocity is necessary to maintain cooperative societies. Their paper was published in Scientific Reports on August 29, 2017.

Most theoretical studies on reciprocity assume a condition of perfect observation. In this situation, every action by every person has a simultaneous effect and no one is permitted to have a different assessment. Although the perfect observation assumption is an unrealistic constraint, this assumption cannot be completely disregarded because analysis then becomes extremely difficult owing to an increased number of variables.

Okada's team succeeded in analyzing a model that has no assumption of perfect observation using computer simulations. According to their results, a norm of solo reciprocity is not sufficient to maintain cooperation, but it can maintain cooperation in solidarity with unconditional cooperators. Moreover, they reveal that a society with a solidarity between norms is more cooperative than that with solo reciprocity.

"So far, philanthropy is excluded by researchers because it is a second-order free-rider that does not punish non-cooperative actions . However, the discussion is solely under an assumption of perfect observation," says Okada. "The solidarity of good and justice is not only a moral statement, but also has shown its importance from an academic perspective."
-end-


Soka University

Related Reciprocity Articles:

Developmental psychology -- One good turn deserves another
Five-year-olds enforce reciprocal behavior in social interactions. A study by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich psychologists shows that children come to recognize reciprocity as a norm between the ages of 3 and 5.
From the Oscars to the Nobel Prize, winners need to choose their friends wisely
Being friends with an award juror can increase a person's chance of being nominated but decrease their chances of being selected as the victor, according to new research published in the Academy of Management Journal.
Most dog and cat owners not aware of pet blood donation schemes
Most dog and cat owners are not aware of pet blood donation schemes and animal blood banks, finds a survey of pet owners published in Vet Record.
PSU study finds people prefer to donate time -- even when charities lose out
Each year during the holiday season, soup kitchens and charities alike are flooded with offers to volunteer.
It pays to be free: No-cost products garner strong word-of-mouth recommendations
Consumers who get a web-based product or mobile app for free are more likely to give it a word-of-mouth boost than a product they buy, suggesting they feel 'one good turn deserves another.'
More Reciprocity News and Reciprocity Current Events

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Erasing The Stigma
Many of us either cope with mental illness or know someone who does. But we still have a hard time talking about it. This hour, TED speakers explore ways to push past — and even erase — the stigma. Guests include musician and comedian Jordan Raskopoulos, neuroscientist and psychiatrist Thomas Insel, psychiatrist Dixon Chibanda, anxiety and depression researcher Olivia Remes, and entrepreneur Sangu Delle.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#537 Science Journalism, Hold the Hype
Everyone's seen a piece of science getting over-exaggerated in the media. Most people would be quick to blame journalists and big media for getting in wrong. In many cases, you'd be right. But there's other sources of hype in science journalism. and one of them can be found in the humble, and little-known press release. We're talking with Chris Chambers about doing science about science journalism, and where the hype creeps in. Related links: The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study Claims of causality in health news: a randomised trial This...