Nav: Home

Solidarity between good and justice keeps a society together

September 22, 2017

Since ancient times, philanthropy or unconditional contribution, and reciprocity or retribution, such as "an eye for an eye," have been and remain common human actions. Thus far, many researchers support the promotion of reciprocity and the suppression of philanthropism, as the latter is favorable to evil. However, Soka University researcher Isamu Okada and his collaborators Tatsuya Sasaki (University of Vienna) and Yutaka Nakai (Shibaura Institute of Technology) have found that the solidarity of philanthropism and reciprocity is necessary to maintain cooperative societies. Their paper was published in Scientific Reports on August 29, 2017.

Most theoretical studies on reciprocity assume a condition of perfect observation. In this situation, every action by every person has a simultaneous effect and no one is permitted to have a different assessment. Although the perfect observation assumption is an unrealistic constraint, this assumption cannot be completely disregarded because analysis then becomes extremely difficult owing to an increased number of variables.

Okada's team succeeded in analyzing a model that has no assumption of perfect observation using computer simulations. According to their results, a norm of solo reciprocity is not sufficient to maintain cooperation, but it can maintain cooperation in solidarity with unconditional cooperators. Moreover, they reveal that a society with a solidarity between norms is more cooperative than that with solo reciprocity.

"So far, philanthropy is excluded by researchers because it is a second-order free-rider that does not punish non-cooperative actions . However, the discussion is solely under an assumption of perfect observation," says Okada. "The solidarity of good and justice is not only a moral statement, but also has shown its importance from an academic perspective."
-end-


Soka University

Related Reciprocity Articles:

'One-way' electronic devices enter the mainstream
Columbia engineers are the first to build a high-performance non-reciprocal device on a compact chip with a performance 25 times better than previous work.
Researchers use machine learning to unearth underground Instagram 'pods'
Not all engagement with posts on social networks is organic, according to a team of researchers at New York University Tandon School of Engineering and Drexel University, who have published the first analysis of a robust underground ecosystem of ''pods.'' These groups of users manipulate curation algorithms and artificially boost content popularity -- whether to increase the reach of promoted content or amplify rhetoric -- through a tactic known as ''reciprocity abuse,'' whereby each member reciprocally interacts with content posted by other members of the group.
Flat-panel technology could transform antennas, wireless and cell phone communications
Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory are reinventing the mirror, at least for microwaves, potentially replacing the familiar 3-D dishes and microwave horns we see on rooftops and cell towers with flat panels that are compact, versatile, and better adapted for modern communication technologies.
In acoustic waves, engineers break reciprocity with 'spacetime-varying metamaterials'
Working in an emerging field known to as 'spacetime-varying metamaterials,' University at Buffalo engineers have demonstrated the ability to break reciprocity in acoustic waves.
A conversation could be the answer to successful rehabilitation of prisoners
Researchers have found people on the brink of release from a prison sentence have lost any sense of being connected to the outside world and, as a result, become prejudiced towards wider society.
Space-time metasurface makes light reflect only in one direction
Breaking reciprocity is important in optical systems that require asymmetric flow of light, such as full-duplex communication systems and lasers.
Asking if behavior can be changed on climate crisis
One of the more complex problems facing social psychologists today is whether any intervention can move people to change their behavior about climate change and protecting the environment for the sake of future generations.
Prisoner's dilemma game reveals cooperation leads to leadership
Game theory has historically studied cooperation and hierarchy, and has sought to explain why individuals cooperate, even though they might be better off not to do so.
Developmental psychology -- One good turn deserves another
Five-year-olds enforce reciprocal behavior in social interactions. A study by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich psychologists shows that children come to recognize reciprocity as a norm between the ages of 3 and 5.
From the Oscars to the Nobel Prize, winners need to choose their friends wisely
Being friends with an award juror can increase a person's chance of being nominated but decrease their chances of being selected as the victor, according to new research published in the Academy of Management Journal.
More Reciprocity News and Reciprocity Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Listen Again: The Biology Of Sex
Original broadcast date: May 8, 2020. Many of us were taught biological sex is a question of female or male, XX or XY ... but it's far more complicated. This hour, TED speakers explore what determines our sex. Guests on the show include artist Emily Quinn, journalist Molly Webster, neuroscientist Lisa Mosconi, and structural biologist Karissa Sanbonmatsu.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#569 Facing Fear
What do you fear? I mean really fear? Well, ok, maybe right now that's tough. We're living in a new age and definition of fear. But what do we do about it? Eva Holland has faced her fears, including trauma and phobia. She lived to tell the tale and write a book: "Nerve: Adventures in the Science of Fear".
Now Playing: Radiolab

The Wubi Effect
When we think of China today, we think of a technological superpower. From Huweai and 5G to TikTok and viral social media, China is stride for stride with the United States in the world of computing. However, China's technological renaissance almost didn't happen. And for one very basic reason: The Chinese language, with its 70,000 plus characters, couldn't fit on a keyboard.  Today, we tell the story of Professor Wang Yongmin, a hard headed computer programmer who solved this puzzle and laid the foundation for the China we know today. This episode was reported and produced by Simon Adler with reporting assistance from Yang Yang. Special thanks to Martin Howard. You can view his renowned collection of typewriters at: antiquetypewriters.com Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.