Nav: Home

Uc san diego researchers isolate switch that kills inactive HIV

September 24, 2019

Using genetic sequencing, University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers have identified a principal cellular player controlling HIV reproduction in immune cells which, when turned off or deleted, eliminates dormant HIV reservoirs.

"This is one of the key switches that the HIV field has been searching for three decades to find," said Tariq Rana, PhD, professor of pediatrics and genetics at UC San Diego School of Medicine. "The most exciting part of this discovery has not been seen before. By genetically modifying a long noncoding RNA, we prevent HIV recurrence in T cells and microglia upon cessation of antiretroviral treatment, suggesting that we have a potential therapeutic target to eradicate HIV and AIDS."

HIV spreads through certain bodily fluid attacking the immune system and preventing the body from fighting off infections. If left untreated, the virus leads to the disease AIDS.

Antiretroviral therapy is used to prevent and treat HIV, allowing patients to live long and healthy lives. However, the medication does not cure patients. Instead, the virus remains inactive in the body. If therapy is discontinued, the virus awakens and multiplies rapidly.

In a study published online on September 24, 2019 in the journal mBio, Rana and colleagues report the first genome-wide expression analysis of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in HIV-infected macrophages -- specialized immune cells that promote tissue inflammation, stimulate the immune system and rid the body of foreign debris. In general, lncRNAs do not encode the recipe for proteins the way other RNAs do, but instead help control which genes are turned "on" or "off" in a cell.

The team described how a single lncRNA dubbed HIV-1 Enchanced LncRNA (HEAL) is elevated in people with HIV. HEAL appears to be a recently emerged gene that regulates HIV replication in immune cells, such as macrophages, microglia and T cells.

Using a combination of genomic, biochemical and cellular approaches, they found that silencing HEAL or removing it with CRISPR-Cas9 prevented HIV from recurring when antiretroviral treatment was stopped. Additional research to confirm these effects in animal models will be performed.

"Our results suggest that HEAL plays a critical role in HIV pathogenesis," said Rana. "Further studies are needed to explain the mechanism that leads to HEAL expression after an individual is infected by HIV, but this finding could be exploited as a therapeutic target."
-end-
Co-authors include: Ti-Chun Chao, Qiong Zhang, Zhonghan Li, Shashi Kant Tiwari, Yue Qin, Edwin Yau, Gatikrushna Singh, Kungyen Chang and Maile Ann Young Karris, all at UC San Diego; Ana Sanchez, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute; and Marcus Kaul, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute and UC Riverside.

Disclosure: Rana is a co-founder and member of the scientific advisory board for ViRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and has equity interest.

University of California - San Diego

Related Immune System Articles:

Too much salt weakens the immune system
A high-salt diet is not only bad for one's blood pressure, but also for the immune system.
Parkinson's and the immune system
Mutations in the Parkin gene are a common cause of hereditary forms of Parkinson's disease.
How an immune system regulator shifts the balance of immune cells
Researchers have provided new insight on the role of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in regulating the immune response.
Immune system upgrade
Theoretically, our immune system could detect and kill cancer cells.
Using the immune system as a defence against cancer
Research published today in the British Journal of Cancer has found that a naturally occurring molecule and a component of the immune system that can successfully target and kill cancer cells, can also encourage immunity against cancer resurgence.
First impressions go a long way in the immune system
An algorithm that predicts the immune response to a pathogen could lead to early diagnosis for such diseases as tuberculosis
Filming how our immune system kill bacteria
To kill bacteria in the blood, our immune system relies on nanomachines that can open deadly holes in their targets.
Putting the break on our immune system's response
Researchers have discovered how a tiny molecule known as miR-132 acts as a 'handbrake' on our immune system -- helping us fight infection.
Decoding the human immune system
For the first time ever, researchers are comprehensively sequencing the human immune system, which is billions of times larger than the human genome.
Masterswitch discovered in body's immune system
Scientists have discovered a critical part of the body's immune system with potentially major implications for the treatment of some of the most devastating diseases affecting humans.
More Immune System News and Immune System Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Listen Again: Reinvention
Change is hard, but it's also an opportunity to discover and reimagine what you thought you knew. From our economy, to music, to even ourselves–this hour TED speakers explore the power of reinvention. Guests include OK Go lead singer Damian Kulash Jr., former college gymnastics coach Valorie Kondos Field, Stockton Mayor Michael Tubbs, and entrepreneur Nick Hanauer.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#562 Superbug to Bedside
By now we're all good and scared about antibiotic resistance, one of the many things coming to get us all. But there's good news, sort of. News antibiotics are coming out! How do they get tested? What does that kind of a trial look like and how does it happen? Host Bethany Brookeshire talks with Matt McCarthy, author of "Superbugs: The Race to Stop an Epidemic", about the ins and outs of testing a new antibiotic in the hospital.
Now Playing: Radiolab

Speedy Beet
There are few musical moments more well-worn than the first four notes of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. But in this short, we find out that Beethoven might have made a last-ditch effort to keep his music from ever feeling familiar, to keep pushing his listeners to a kind of psychological limit. Big thanks to our Brooklyn Philharmonic musicians: Deborah Buck and Suzy Perelman on violin, Arash Amini on cello, and Ah Ling Neu on viola. And check out The First Four Notes, Matthew Guerrieri's book on Beethoven's Fifth. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.