An in-depth analysis of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2

September 29, 2020

Using a technology called VirScan to study coronavirus antibody responses in a large cohort of SARS-CoV-2-infected and control individuals, researchers identified epitopes recognized by a large fraction of COVID-19 patients, epitopes cross-reactive with antibodies developed in response to other human coronaviruses, and 10 epitopes likely recognized by neutralizing antibodies. They used this VirScan data to design a tool for rapid SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection. The clinical course of COVID-19 is notable for its extreme variability. Understanding the factors influencing this spectrum of outcomes - including the variable human immune - is an area of focus. Ellen Shrock and colleagues used a technology known as VirScan - a tool members of the same group developed previously - to explore the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronaviruses in more than 200 COVID-19 patients and nearly 200 pre-COVID-19 era controls. Blood serum from COVID-19 patients exhibited much more SARS-CoV-2 reactivity compared to pre-COVID-19 era controls, though some cross-reactivity toward SARS-CoV-2 peptides was observed in the pre-COVID-19 era samples, say the authors; this was expected, they note, since nearly everyone has been exposed to human coronaviruses. However, only COVID-19 patients' antibodies primarily recognized peptides derived from the spike (S) and nucleoprotein (N) of the virus. Those members of the SARS-CoV-2-infected group who had been hospitalized for their infection exhibited stronger and broader antibody responses to S and N peptides, the authors report. In the same (hospitalized) group, antibody responses to nearly all viruses, except SARS-CoV-2, were weaker; as well, males exhibited greater SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses than females. This latter finding, consistent with reported differences in disease outcomes for males and females, may indicate that males in this group are less able to control the virus soon after infection. A machine learning model trained on the VirScan results accurately classified patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Drawing insights from this model about peptides highly predictive of SARS-CoV-2 guided the design of simple, rapid diagnostic for COVID-19, which predicted SARS-CoV-2 exposure with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity. "Altogether these data help explain why many serological assays for SARS-CoV-2 produce false positives and should be taken as a cautionary note for those trying to develop such assays," the authors write.

American Association for the Advancement of Science

Related Peptides Articles from Brightsurf:

Peptides+antibiotic combination may result in a more effective treatment for leishmaniasis
A combination of peptides and antibiotics could be key to eliminating the parasite causing leishmaniasis and avoiding the toxicity to people and animals caused by current drugs.

Designer peptides show potential for blocking viruses, encourage future study
Chemically engineered peptides, designed and developed by a team of researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, could prove valuable in the battle against some of the most persistent human health challenges.

Tracking down cryptic peptides
Using a newly developed method, researchers from the University of Würzburg, in cooperation with the University Hospital of Würzburg, were able to identify thousands of special peptides on the surface of cells for the first time.

Synthesis of prebiotic peptides gives clues to the origin of life on Earth
Coordination Compounds Lab of Kazan Federal University started researching prebiotic peptide synthesis in 2013 with the use of the ASIA-330 flow chemistry system.

Peptides that can be taken as a pill
Peptides represent a billion-dollar market in the pharmaceutical industry, but they can generally only be taken as injections to avoid degradation by stomach enzymes.

Harnessing psyllid peptides to fight citrus greening disease
BTI, USDA and UW scientists have identified peptides in the Asian citrus psyllid, an insect that spreads the bacterium that causes citrus greening disease (huanglongbing, HLB).

New technique has potential to protect oranges from citrus greening
Citrus greening, also called Huanglongbing (HLB), is devastating the citrus industry.

Researchers show what drives a novel, ordered assembly of alternating peptides
A team of researchers has verified that it is possible to engineer two-layered nanofibers consisting of an ordered row of alternating peptides, and has also determined what makes these peptides automatically assemble into this pattern.

Origin of life insight: peptides can form without amino acids
Peptides, one of the fundamental building blocks of life, can be formed from the primitive precursors of amino acids under conditions similar to those expected on the primordial Earth, finds a new UCL study published in Nature.

Ragon Institute study identifies viral peptides critical to natural HIV control
Investigators at the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard have used a novel approach to identify specific amino acids in the protein structure of HIV that appear critical to the ability of the virus to function and replicate.

Read More: Peptides News and Peptides Current Events is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to