Nav: Home

A review on the therapeutic antibodies for spinal cord injury

October 03, 2016

Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes long-lasting damage in the spinal cord that leads to paraparesis, paraplegia, quadriplegia and other lifetime disabilities. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the failure of axonal regeneration after SCI remain only partially understood. Although a spectrum of medical treatments has been made available for this disease, the therapeutic effects remain disappointing. The emergence of antibody treatment has paved a new pathway for the management of SCI. In this current review, the authors summarize the application of antibodies in SCI in studies of myelin repair, neuroprotection, axon outgrowth, and anti-immune reaction.

For myelin repair, the therapeutic functions and underlying mechanisms for antibodies targeting inhibitory molecules such as Nogo-A, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), Nogo-66 receptor (NgR), leucine rich repeat and Ig domain containing Nogo receptor interacting protein-1 (LINGO-1), Rho-associated protein kinase (Rock) pathway, repulsive guidance molecule (RGMa), as well as tenascin-R (Tn-R) are mainly reviewed. In addition, antibodies targeting glial scar formation-related molecules, including NG2 and transforming growth factor (TGF) are described. Antibodies against CD11d, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO), integrin α4β1 and αDβ2, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) are also reviewed as neuroprotective reagents. The authors also describe cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) antibody to promote neurite outgrowth. For anti-immune reaction treatment, the authors describe several antibodies that can inhibit the functions of either T cells or B cells during the progression of SCI. In the meantime, the combinatorial treatment of the antibody with other reagents or stem cell transplant, as well as antibodies against molecules contributing to SCI-related neuropathic pain is also reviewed.

Despite the significant limitations of antibody treatment, the authors are still confident about the future application of antibodies as a promising therapeutic means to counteract the damage caused by SCI.
-end-
For more information about the article please visit http://benthamscience.com/journals/cns-and-neurological-disorders-drug-targets/article/145554/

References: Tang, D.-Y.; Zhao, W.-J.; (2016). Therapeutic antibodies for spinal cord injury, CNS Neurol. Disord. Drug Targets, DOI: 10.2174/1871527315666160915150754

Bentham Science Publishers

Related Spinal Cord Injury Articles:

Spinal cord injury patients face many serious health problems besides paralysis
Spinal cord patients are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease; pneumonia; life-threatening blood clots; bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction; constipation and other gastrointestinal problems; pressure ulcers; and chronic pain, according to a report published in the journal Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports.
A review on the therapeutic antibodies for spinal cord injury
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes long-lasting damage in the spinal cord that leads to paraparesis, paraplegia, quadriplegia and other lifetime disabilities.
Health behaviors and management critical for spinal cord injury patients
U-M researcher is the co-editor of a two-part series of Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation focused on recent research studies about health behaviors and health management in individuals with spinal cord injury.
First clinical guidelines in Canada for pain following spinal cord injury
Researchers at Lawson Health Research Institute are the first in Canada to develop clinical practice guidelines for managing neuropathic pain with patients who have experienced a spinal cord injury.
Improving cell transplantation after spinal cord injury: When, where and how?
Spinal cord injuries are mostly caused by trauma, often incurred in road traffic or sporting incidents, often with devastating and irreversible consequences.
Discovery in roundworms may one day help humans with spinal cord injury and paralysis
A newly discovered pathway leading to the regeneration of central nervous system (CNS) brain cells (neurons) in a type of roundworm (C. elegans) sheds light on the adult human nervous system's ability to regenerate.
Protective effect of genetically modified cord blood on spinal cord injury in rats
Researchers of Kazan Federal University genetically modified cord blood which managed to increase tissue sparing and numbers of regenerated axons, reduce glial scar formation and promote behavioral recovery when transplanted immediately after a rat contusion spinal cord injury.
Aging diminishes spinal cord regeneration after injury
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and University of British Columbia (UBC) have determined that, in mice, age diminishes ability to regenerate axons, the brain's communication wires in the spinal cord.
Neuroscientific evidence that motivation promotes recovery after spinal cord injury
The research team led by Associate Professor Yukio Nishimura, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Natural Institutes of Natural Sciences, found that the nucleus accumbens, that control motivation in the brain, activates the activity of the motor cortex of the brain, and then promotes recovery of motor function during the early stage of recovery after spinal cord injury.
New approach to spinal cord and brain injury research
Many an injury will heal, but the damaged spinal cord is notoriously recalcitrant.

Related Spinal Cord Injury Reading:

Spinal Cord Injury: Functional Rehabilitation (3rd Edition)
by Martha Freeman Somers MS PT (Author)

Compltely updated in a new edition, this unique reference is an in-depth examination of the central role of the physical therapist in rehabilitation following spinal cord injury. This book encompasses all of the elements involved in a successful rehabilitation program. It includes a basic understanding of spinal cord injuries and issues relevant to disability, as well as knowledge of the physical skills involved in functional activities and the therapeutic strategies for acquiring these skills. It also presents an approach to the cord-injured person that promotes self-respect and encourages... View Details


Spinal Cord Injury: Functional Rehabilitation (2nd Edition)
by Martha Freeman Somers (Author)

Appropriate for physical therapy students in courses covering neurorehabilitation and rehabilitation following spinal cord injury.This comprehensive text presents an in-depth examination of the central role of the physical therapist in rehabilitation following spinal cord injury. It provides updated information from clinical and basic science research, uses terminology and presents interventions consistent with published clinical practice guidelines, and includes strategies for delivering quality rehabilitative services in today's healthcare environment. View Details


Spinal Cord Injuries: Management and Rehabilitation, 1e
by Sue Ann Sisto PT MA PhD (Author), Erica Druin MPT (Author), Martha Macht Sliwinski PT MA PhD (Author)

From a hospital admittance to discharge to outpatient rehabilitation, Spinal Cord Injuries addresses the wide spectrum of rehabilitation interventions and administrative and clinical issues specific to patients with spinal cord injuries. Comprehensive coverage includes costs, life expectancies, acute care, respiratory care, documentation, goal setting, clinical treatment, complications, and activities of daily living associated with spinal cord patients. In addition to physical therapy interventions and family education components, this resource includes content on incidence, etiology,... View Details


Spinal Cord Injury
by Anders Holtz MD PhD (Author), Richard Levi MD PhD (Author)

Spinal cord injuries typically strike young, previously healthy persons, and leaves the individual with a severe, life-lasting impairment affecting all organ systems. Without adequate management, the risk of severe morbidity and mortality is very high. In contrast state-of-the-art management makes it possible for most persons with SCI to lead long, fulfilling, and autonomous lives despite neurological impairment. This book covers all medical and surgical aspects of modern SCI management from the scene of the accident through rehabilitation to the life-long follow up.
View Details


Spinal Cord Injury (Rehabilitation Medicine Quick Reference)
by Thomas N. Bryce MD (Author), Ralph Buschbacher MD (Series Editor)

"A spinal cord injury (SCI) profoundly changes a person life and can affect nearly all of the body systems. Practitioners managing persons with SCI must treat the medical complications that arise, and be equipped to help their patients return to a productive integrated life within society. Spinal Cord Injury: Rehabilitation Medicine Quick Reference provides the necessary knowledge to help facilitate this process. Addressing over one hundred varied topics related to spinal cord injury, ranging from Treatment of Vocal Fold Paralysis or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders to Intrathecal Pump... View Details


Spinal Cord Injury: A Guide to Functional Outcomes in Occupational Therapy (The Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago Publication Series)
by Judy P. Hill (Author)

This generously illustrated, hands-on guide provides the procedures, forms, and guidelines in daily use at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago so you can plan more effective therapy for SCI patients. From admissions evaluation to individual and group therapy, to discharge and followup, the Guide gives you point-by-point procedures for helping patients master needed skills. Convenient charts sum up skills in feeding, communication, hygiene, dressing, home management, and leisure activities. View Details


Across The Street From Hell: My Spinal Cord Injury Recovery
by Mark Anthony Hall (Author)

On his way to work the morning of August 8th 2007 Mark Hall was ejected from his vehicle during a rollover accident breaking his neck and leaving him paralyzed from the neck down. Follow him on his journey from his life as an Ironworker & Musician, through the accident, then tackling the daily obstacles of rehabilitation and his new life as a C-4, 5, 6 quadriplegic. What follows is an honest, raw and candid insight into the challenges of also being a Husband, Father to his three young daughters and his unrelenting (and successful) quest to prove wrong all the doctors and skeptics who said... View Details


21st Century VA Independent Study Course: Medical Care of Persons with Spinal Cord Injury - Covering Autonomic Nervous System, Symptoms, Treatment, Motor Neuron Injury, and Autonomic Dysreflexia
by Department of Veterans Affairs (Author)

The Veterans Administration (VA) Independent Study Course on the medical care of those with spinal cord injuries (SCI) is designed to familiarize the reader with the unique aspects of SCI medicine. Its purpose is to help you gain knowledge so that any clinical encounter is more comfortable and informational for both you and the veteran served. This is not an attempt to make you a specialist, but to provide information so you can manage the patient until a subspecialist is available. Upon completion of this self-study program, participants should be able to: delineate the most common... View Details


Spinal Cord Injury: A Guide to Functional Outcomes in Physical Therapy Management (Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago Publication)
by Vickie Nixon PT (Author)

Well organized and illustrated, this classic guide takes a problem-solving approach to teaching compensatory movements, improving vital capacity, increasing mobility, enhancing ROM, preparing for discharge, and conducting exercise classes.

View Details


Spinal Cord Medicine
by Denise I. Campagnolo MD (Editor), Steven Kirshblum MD (Editor), Mark S. Nash PhD FACSM (Editor), Robert F. Heary MD (Editor), Peter H. Gorman MD (Editor)

Spinal Cord Medicine is the perfect resource for the medical specialist treating persons with spinal cord injuries.  This comprehensive and practical resource provides detail about all aspects of spinal cord injury and disease.  The initial seven chapters present the history, anatomy, imaging, epidemiology, and general acute management of spinal cord injury. The next eleven chapters deal with medical aspects of spinal cord damage, such as pulmonary management and the neurogenic bladder. Chapters on rehabilitation are followed by nine... View Details

Best Science Podcasts 2017

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2017. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Going Undercover
Are deception and secrecy categorically wrong? Or can they be a necessary means to an end? This hour, TED speakers share stories of going undercover to explore unknown territory, and find the truth. Guests include poet and activist Theo E.J. Wilson, journalist Jamie Bartlett, counter-terrorism expert Mubin Shaikh, and educator Shabana Basij-Rasikh.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#452 Face Recognition and Identity
This week we deep dive into the science of how we recognize faces and why some of us are better -- or worse -- at this than others. We talk with Brad Duchaine, Professor of Psychology at Dartmouth College, about both super recognizers and face blindness. And we speak with Matteo Martini, Psychology Lecturer at the University of East London, about a study looking at twins who have difficulty telling which one of them a photo was of. Charity Links: Union of Concerned Scientists Evidence For Democracy Sense About Science American Association for the Advancement of Science Association for Women...