Columbia University scientist wins 2004 Nobel Prize

October 04, 2004

NEW YORK, NY, October 4, 2004 - Richard Axel, M.D. of Columbia University Medical Center has won the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Linda B. Buck, Ph.D., of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center for clarifying how the olfactory system works. Dr. Buck was a postdoctoral fellow at Columbia when she and Dr. Axel jointly published the fundamental paper on the subject in 1991.

The sense of smell has remained the most enigmatic of the senses. The work of Drs. Axel and Buck has provided understanding on how the nose is able to distinguish more than 10,000 distinct smells. The researchers discovered a gene pool of more than 1,000 different genes that encode olfactory receptors in the nose that detect odors and olfaction. This is believed to be the largest gene family in the human genome.

"I'm deeply honored and very pleased," said Dr. Axel. "This honor represents the long efforts of the many faculty, students and fellows who have worked within our laboratories at Columbia University Medical Center. I have received enormous support over the years beginning with the scholarship I received to attend Columbia College. I have to also thank the National Institutes of Health and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute that allowed the performance of truly novel experiments by our research team."

Dr. Richard Axel is University Professor, Columbia University, and Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center. He has been at Columbia University Medical Center his entire career, and was an undergraduate at Columbia College.

Axel and Buck join a group of 70 notable Columbians whose work has been recognized by the Nobel Foundation, including 19 in the category of physiology or medicine.

"Columbia University is honored that our esteemed faculty member, Richard Axel, has received the Nobel Prize for his pioneering studies clarifying how our sense of smell works," said Columbia University President Lee C. Bollinger. "Dr. Axel's groundbreaking research solves the puzzle of how we translate the sensations around us into knowledge that is key for our survival and quality of life."

"Dr. Axel's work is among the most important discoveries of the past 50 years, providing insights regarding how individuals perceive their external environment," said Gerald D. Fischbach, executive vice president, Columbia University Medical Center. "He has been an enormously important influence for all the sciences here at Columbia University, the medical center and the College of Physicians and Surgeons. His wide range of interests and enormous skills in molecular biology have influenced faculty throughout the university."

"We congratulate Richard and Linda for their profoundly important discovery, and for the way in which they achieved it," said David Hirsh, executive vice president for research at Columbia University. "Their experiments represent the highest form of creativity, scientific discipline and scholarship. This is science at its most beautiful."

The sense of smell is possible because neurons directly connect the brain to the outside world. In the nose, receptors on the neurons pick up odors from the environment and send that information directly to the olfactory bulb, the first relay station in the brain. Drs. Axel and Buck determined how neurons converge in the olfactory bulb, which gave them further insights into how smell is processed in the brain. Each olfactory receptor cell possesses only one type of odorant receptor, and each receptor can detect a limited number of odorant substances, so the olfactory receptor cells are highly specialized for a few odors. Most odors are composed of multiple odorant molecules, and each odorant molecule activates several odorant receptors, leading to a combined odorant pattern, which allows us to recognize and form memories of approximately 10,000 different odors. The combination of odorant receptors activated when we smell a rose tell us that it smells nice and is different from the combination of receptors activated by rotting fish.

The sense of smell is essential to the survival of most species, who use their olfactory systems to identify food, smell predators and observe and interpret their environments. In humans, smells warn us if food has gone bad and can be powerful enough to trigger distinct memories years later.

Axel and his colleagues also developed gene transfer techniques that permit the introduction of virtually any gene into any cell, allowing the analysis of gene function in vivo. These experiments in cell transformation led to the isolation and functional analysis of the gene for the T-cell surface protein, CD4, the cellular receptor for HIV. He then began to apply the techniques of molecular biology to problems in neurobiology. He identified the peptide genes responsible for eliciting an innate behavior in a marine snail, and molecular analysis of these genes suggests how diverse behavioral patterns may be encoded in the genetic material and inherited from parent to offspring.
CONTACT: Craig LeMoult, 212-305-0820
Elizabeth Streich, 212-305-6535
Andrea Fleisher, 212-305-4243

Located in New York City, Columbia University Medical Center provides international leadership in basic and clinical research, medical education, and health care. The medical center includes the dedicated work of many physicians, scientists, and other health professionals at the College of Physicians & Surgeons, the School of Dental & Oral Surgery, the School of Nursing, the Mailman School of Public Health, the biomedical departments of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and allied research centers and institutions. The pioneering tradition of Columbia University health scientists, who achieved some of the 20th century's most significant medical breakthroughs, continues today.

Columbia University Medical Center

Related Genes Articles from Brightsurf:

Are male genes from Mars, female genes from Venus?
In a new paper in the PERSPECTIVES section of the journal Science, Melissa Wilson reviews current research into patterns of sex differences in gene expression across the genome, and highlights sampling biases in the human populations included in such studies.

New alcohol genes uncovered
Do you have what is known as problematic alcohol use?

How status sticks to genes
Life at the bottom of the social ladder may have long-term health effects that even upward mobility can't undo, according to new research in monkeys.

Symphony of genes
One of the most exciting discoveries in genome research was that the last common ancestor of all multicellular animals already possessed an extremely complex genome.

New genes out of nothing
One key question in evolutionary biology is how novel genes arise and develop.

Good genes
A team of scientists from NAU, Arizona State University, the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, the Center for Coastal Studies in Massachusetts and nine other institutions worldwide to study potential cancer suppression mechanisms in cetaceans, the mammalian group that includes whales, dolphins and porpoises.

How lifestyle affects our genes
In the past decade, knowledge of how lifestyle affects our genes, a research field called epigenetics, has grown exponentially.

Genes that regulate how much we dream
Sleep is known to allow animals to re-energize themselves and consolidate memories.

The genes are not to blame
Individualized dietary recommendations based on genetic information are currently a popular trend.

Timing is everything, to our genes
Salk scientists discover critical gene activity follows a biological clock, affecting diseases of the brain and body.

Read More: Genes News and Genes Current Events is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to