HETE-2 satellite solves mystery of cosmic explosions

October 05, 2005

An international team of scientists using three NASA satellites and a host of ground-based telescopes believes it has solved the greatest remaining mystery of the mysterious gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the most powerful explosions in the universe. The shorter of two versions of these bursts appear to be caused by the collision of closely orbiting neutron stars or one of those compact stars and a black hole, said Don Lamb, the Louis Block Professor in Astronomy & Astrophysics at the University of Chicago.

"The mystery of short gamma-ray bursts is largely solved," Lamb said. Lamb and his co-authors will describe their finding in a paper that will appear in the Oct. 6 issue of the journal Nature.

That paper details the properties of a short GRB that was detected by NASA's High Energy Transient Explorer 2 (HETE-2) satellite on July 9, 2005. A second paper in the same issue of Nature, written by Pennsylvania State University's Derek Fox and his colleagues, will present follow-up observations of the July 9 burst collected by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope and a variety of ground-based telescopes.

"All the pieces of the puzzle came together for us with this burst," Fox said. "From the HETE detection to the Great Observatories of Chandra and the Hubble Space Telescope, to ground-based observations by our Danish colleagues, we kept on top of this burst from start to finish."

What produces GRBs had baffled scientists for more than three decades after the announcement of their discovery in 1973. GRBs last anywhere from fractions of a second to many minutes. They occur several times a day, come from any direction in the sky, and even their afterglows shine billions of times brighter than their host galaxies.

In 2003, HETE-2 provided solid evidence linking long GRBs to the collapse of massive stars, which signal the births of black holes. Scientists had collected circumstantial evidence supporting that connection for several years. In the case of the short bursts there has been no such buildup of observational evidence, only theoretical calculations and conjectures.

The Nature papers will document several significant findings associated with the July 9 GRB, officially known as GRB 050709: The burned-out cores of dead stars, neutron stars are extremely compact, measuring no more than 10 miles in diameter. The neutron stars producing a short GRB originally would have formed as massive stars in a more centrally located star-forming region of their galaxy. They would have been binary stars--two stars locked in orbit around each other. But after they exhausted their nuclear fuel and exploded, the force would have kicked them out of the star-forming region into the outskirts of their galaxy.

Long bursts, by contrast, have all taken place in the brightest star-forming region of their host galaxies. That's because long bursts are due to the collapse of massive stars, which have relatively short lifetimes, Lamb said.

Penn State's Fox noted that as a result of the observations, scientists now know that short GRBs are not accompanied by supernovae, the collapse of massive stars. "This was a critical test of the merging neutron stars theory," he said. "Also, we can say that the bursts are beamed, jet-like explosions that illuminate about one-thirtieth of the sky."

The jet-like behavior of the bursts also is important information, Fox said. It tells scientists that any process they use to explain the bursts cannot cause material to blast out in every direction. "It also tells us that the true rate of mergers is 30 times the number of bursts we observe," because they would be invisible unless the jets were pointed along sight lines of Earthbound observers. Although the mystery of the short GRBs has been solved, even more exciting discoveries are in the offing, Lamb said. Merging neutron stars are powerful sources of gravitational waves. Albert Einstein incorporated gravitational waves into his 1916 general theory of relativity. No direct measurement of gravitational waves has ever been made. The relative proximity of short GRBs to Earth means that the gravitational waves they emit could be detected by future experiments.

The search for gravitational waves already is in progress at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in Washington and Lousiana. "The first gravitational wave source that LIGO sees may well be a short gamma-ray burst," Lamb said.

Princeton University's Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor Jr. earned the 1993 Nobel Prize for the indirect detection of gravitational waves. Scientists eagerly await the next step. "This is the stuff of Nobel dreams," Lamb said.
-end-
A high-resolution artist's rendering of the HETE-2 satellite is available upon request.

University of Chicago

Related Black Hole Articles from Brightsurf:

Black hole or no black hole: On the outcome of neutron star collisions
A new study lead by GSI scientists and international colleagues investigates black-hole formation in neutron star mergers.

The black hole always chirps twice: New clues deciphering the shape of black holes
A team of gravitational-wave scientists led by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav) reveal that when two black holes collide and merge, the remnant black hole 'chirps' not once, but multiple times, emitting gravitational waves--intense ripples in the fabric space and time--that inform us about its shape.

Wobbling shadow of the M87 black hole
New analysis from the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration reveals the behavior of the supermassive black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy across multiple years, indicating the crescent-like shadow feature appears to be wobbling.

How to have a blast like a black hole
Scientists at Osaka University have created magnetized-plasma conditions similar to those near a black hole using very intense laser pulses.

Black hole collision may have exploded with light
Astronomers have seen what appears to the first light ever detected from a black hole merger.

Black hole's heart still beating
The first confirmed heartbeat of a supermassive black hole is still going strong more than ten years after first being observed.

Black hole team discovers path to razor-sharp black hole images
A team of researchers have published new calculations that predict a striking and intricate substructure within black hole images from extreme gravitational light bending.

Planets around a black hole?
Theoreticians in two different fields defied the common knowledge that planets orbit stars like the Sun.

Black hole mergers: Cooking with gas
Gravitational wave detectors are finding black hole mergers in the universe at the rate of one per week.

Going against the flow around a supermassive black hole
At the center of a galaxy called NGC 1068, a supermassive black hole hides within a thick doughnut-shaped cloud of dust and gas.

Read More: Black Hole News and Black Hole Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.