Nav: Home

JNeurosci: Highlights from the Oct. 12 issue

October 12, 2016

Check out these newsworthy studies from the October 12, 2016, issue of JNeurosci. Media interested in obtaining the full text of the studies should contact

Insulin May Prevent Inflammation and Improve Neurocognitive Function in HIV

The HIV virus can cause problems with memory, motor function, and behavior, and HIV patients with Type 2 diabetes may be at an increased risk of developing these neurocognitive disorders. The virus may exert these effects by infecting and activating the central nervous system's primary immune cells, microglia. In a new study, researchers find insulin treatment blocks the expression of inflammatory genes, inhibits HIV replication, and prevents neurotoxicity in microglia from people with HIV. They also find insulin treatment delivered intranasally improves neurocognitive function in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus.

Corresponding author: Christopher Power,

Neural Stem Cell Transplantation Promotes Stroke Recovery in Mice

Ischemic stroke kills brain cells and perturbs neural networks. It also impairs the ability of glial cells to remove excess levels of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, exacerbating neurotoxicity. In a new study, researchers transplant neural precursor cells into the brains of mice after ischemic stroke and find the treatment enhances glial cells' ability to clear excess glutamate and promotes regenerative plasticity in the brain. The results show how stem cell transplantation can promote recovery from stroke.

Corresponding author: Marco Bacigaluppi,

Cerebral Cortex Contributes to Our Drive to Breathe During Wakefulness

The brainstem's respiratory control center drives automatic breathing. This network of neurons monitors levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood and adjusts respiration accordingly. In people, a dip in carbon dioxide -- hypocapnia -- reduces the drive to breathe because there is less carbon dioxide to expel. But this only happens during sleep and when under anesthesia. When we're awake, we continue breathing in spite of the dip in carbon dioxide. In a new study, researchers measure participants' brain activity using electroencephalography during normal and hypocapnic breathing and find activity in the cerebral cortex drives hypocapnic breathing, similar to the brain activity that drives volitional breathing. Human speech depends on our ability to override the brainstem's automatic control of breathing, and the results of this study could aid in the study of speech disorders.

Corresponding author: Thomas Similowski,
The Journal of Neuroscience is published by the Society for Neuroscience, an organization of nearly 38,000 basic scientists and clinicians who study the brain and nervous system.

Society for Neuroscience

Related Hiv Articles:

Defective HIV proviruses reduce effective immune system response, interfere with HIV cure
A new study finds defective HIV proviruses, long thought to be harmless, produce viral proteins and distract the immune system from killing intact proviruses needed to reduce the HIV reservoir and cure HIV.
1 in 7 people living with HIV in the EU/EEA are not aware of their HIV status
Almost 30,000 newly diagnosed HIV infections were reported by the 31 European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries in 2015, according to data published today by ECDC and the WHO Regional Office for Europe.
Smoking may shorten the lifespan of people living with HIV more than HIV itself
A new study led by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital finds that cigarette smoking substantially reduces the lifespan of people living with HIV in the US, potentially even more than HIV itself.
For smokers with HIV, smoking may now be more harmful than HIV itself
HIV-positive individuals who smoke cigarettes may be more likely to die from smoking-related disease than the infection itself, according to a new study published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Patients diagnosed late with HIV infection are more likely to transmit HIV to others
An estimated 1.2 million people live with HIV in the United States, with nearly 13 percent being unaware of their infection.
The Lancet HIV: New HIV infections stagnating at 2.5 million a year worldwide
A major new analysis from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study, published today in The Lancet HIV journal, reveals that although deaths from HIV/AIDS have been steadily declining from a peak in 2005, 2.5 million people worldwide became newly infected with HIV in 2015, a number that hasn't changed substantially in the past 10 years.
NIH scientists discover that defective HIV DNA can encode HIV-related proteins
Investigators from the National Institutes of Health have discovered that cells from HIV-infected people whose virus is suppressed with treatment harbor defective HIV DNA that can nevertheless be transcribed into a template for producing HIV-related proteins.
Study examines risk of HIV transmission from condomless sex with virologically suppressed HIV infection
Among nearly 900 serodifferent (one partner is HIV-positive, one is HIV-negative) heterosexual and men who have sex with men couples in which the HIV-positive partner was using suppressive antiretroviral therapy and who reported condomless sex, during a median follow-up of 1.3 years per couple, there were no documented cases of within-couple HIV transmission, according to a study appearing in the July 12 issue of JAMA, an HIV/AIDS theme issue.
HIV vaccine design should adapt as HIV virus mutates
Researchers from UAB, Emory and Microsoft demonstrate that HIV has evolved to be pre-adapted to the immune response, worsening clinical outcomes in newly infected patients.
Charlie Sheen's HIV disclosure may reinvigorate awareness, prevention of HIV
Actor Charlie Sheen's public disclosure in November 2015 that he has the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) corresponded with the greatest number of HIV-related Google searches ever recorded in the United States, according to an article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.

Related Hiv Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Do animals grieve? Do they have language or consciousness? For a long time, scientists resisted the urge to look for human qualities in animals. This hour, TED speakers explore how that is changing. Guests include biological anthropologist Barbara King, dolphin researcher Denise Herzing, primatologist Frans de Waal, and ecologist Carl Safina.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#SB2 2019 Science Birthday Minisode: Mary Golda Ross
Our second annual Science Birthday is here, and this year we celebrate the wonderful Mary Golda Ross, born 9 August 1908. She died in 2008 at age 99, but left a lasting mark on the science of rocketry and space exploration as an early woman in engineering, and one of the first Native Americans in engineering. Join Rachelle and Bethany for this very special birthday minisode celebrating Mary and her achievements. Thanks to our Patreons who make this show possible! Read more about Mary G. Ross: Interview with Mary Ross on Lash Publications International, by Laurel Sheppard Meet Mary Golda...