Report: US criminal justice system unfair, unjust for Hispanics

October 14, 2004

WASHINGTON, D.C. - Hispanics are overrepresented in the nation's criminal justice system, with Hispanic defendants imprisoned three times as often and detained before trial for first-time offenses almost twice as often as whites, despite being the least likely of all ethnic groups to have a criminal history, a report released today has found.

Commissioned by the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), the nation's largest Hispanic civil rights organization, the report - "Lost Opportunities: The Reality of Latinos in the U.S. Criminal Justice System" - also found that Hispanics represented 13 percent of the U.S. population in 2000, but accounted for 31 percent of those incarcerated in the federal criminal justice system. Hispanics have one chance in six of being confined in prison during their lifetimes, the authors found.

"It is apparent that the criminal justice system in this country is neither fair nor just for Hispanics," said Janet Murguia, NCLR's executive director and chief operating officer. "Recent polls show that Latinos care very much about protecting public safety and fighting crime, but they recognize that being tough on crime is not always the same as being smart on crime. Our community is losing a whole generation of people, and that is a national tragedy. What we need is a system that does a better job of protecting public safety without destroying lives and wasting resources. Crime and justice issues are the new civil rights issues of the 21st century."

"Lost Opportunities," co-authored by NCLR, the Center for Youth Policy Research (CYPR), and Michigan State University's Office of University Outreach & Engagement, is the first comprehensive examination of Hispanics in every facet of the criminal justice system - from arrest to sentencing, including juvenile justice. The analysis is based on data from government sources, including the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the U.S. Census Bureau.

"Lost Opportunities" offers policy recommendations - including community-based strategies for alternatives to incarceration - for addressing criminal justice issues that affect Latinos and which provide models for states to replicate.

"This study conclusively documents the criminal justice system's discriminatory practices against the nation's largest and fastest-growing minority population," said Nancy Walker, president and senior research fellow of CYPR and MSU adjunct professor, and an author of the report. "This indictment of the system comes from the government's own statistics. Our nation cannot afford to ignore the compelling case that these numbers make for reforming our system. It would be costly, both in human and monetary terms, for us to proceed with today's norm."

In "Lost Opportunities," the authors found that the inequities that Hispanics experience in the criminal justice system stem from a variety of factors: Other key findings about the disparate treatment that Hispanics receive include:"We called this study 'Lost Opportunities' for a reason," said J. Michael Senger, senior staff attorney of CYPR and an author of the report. "By relying too much on prison as a one-size-fits-all solution, our country has failed to separate the low-level, nonviolent offenders who can be rehabilitated from the hardened criminals who must be locked up. This is truly a lost opportunity for us all - for the individuals involved to become productive citizens, for Latino communities to draw strength from all of its members, and for our nation as a whole to benefit from the talent, labor, and taxes that these people could potentially contribute."

Success stories that the authors point to as models for other states include Texas, which saved nearly $30 million in sending offenders to a state drug program rather than to jail, and California, where lawmakers are considering closing one or two women's prisons because of its success in diverting more than 12,000 individuals from prison to treatment programs. Texas drug court participants had significantly lower two-year recidivism rates for arrest and incarceration. Of all ethnic groups, though, Hispanics are the least likely to have the opportunity to participate in substance abuse prevention and treatment programs.

"We have to look at the detrimental impact our approach to criminal justice has on Latino youth. The number of young Hispanics in the justice system has increased significantly, which has frayed the social fabric of our community," said Francisco Villarruel, MSU University Outreach and Engagement fellow and professor of family and child ecology, and an author of the report. "We need more community-based programs to help put these young people on the path to college rather than to prison."
Key findings from "Lost Opportunities" are available online at

Michigan State University

Related Incarceration Articles from Brightsurf:

Privatized prisons lead to more inmates, longer sentences, study finds
WSU study finds that when states turn to private prisons, the number of criminals incarcerated rises and the length of sentences increases.

Familial incarceration negatively impacts mental health for African American women
More than half of all African American women in the United States report having at least one family member who is incarcerated, causing higher levels of depressive symptoms and psychological distress than previously understood.

Punitive sentencing led to higher incarceration rates throughout adulthood for certain birth cohorts in North Carolina
A new study using 45 years of incarceration data from North Carolina suggests an alternative explanation to the current rates of incarceration: this pattern is driven by the prolonged involvement in the criminal justice system by members of Generation X, who came of age during the 1980s and early 1990s.

Save black lives
The Center for Justice Research at Texas Southern University and the Black Public Defender Association today released ''Save Black Lives: A Call for Racially-responsive Strategies and Resources for the Black Community during the COVID-19 Pandemic,'' a comprehensive report that details why public health responses and strategies to address COVID-19 must be centered around race and the criminal legal system.

Expanded access to treatment in prisons can reduce overdose deaths by 31.6%, study finds
Using a microsimulation model, researchers at Brown predicted the number of opioid-related overdose deaths related to three different treatment options over the course of 8 years.

How prison and police discrimination affect black sexual minority men's health
Incarceration and police discrimination may contribute to HIV, depression and anxiety among Black gay, bisexual and other sexual minority men, according to a Rutgers led study.

Place doesn't trump race as predictor of incarceration
Steven Alvarado is the author of 'The Complexities of Race and Place: Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Incarceration for Whites, Blacks, and Latinos,' published June 1 in the journal Socius showing that for black Americans growing up in better neighborhoods doesn't diminish the likelihood of going to prison nearly as much as it does for whites or Latinos.

Providing child support after prison: Some state policies may miss the mark
Many states have policies that attempt to help formerly incarcerated people find work by limiting an employer's ability to access or use criminal records as part of the hiring process.

Working as peer-support specialist helps people with criminal and psychiatric histories
As houses of detention increasingly turn to early-release initiatives in the pandemic, a study explores a hopeful reintegration path for the formerly incarcerated with mental illness.

Incarceration of a family member during childhood associated with diabetes in men
Men who experienced a family member's incarceration are 64% more likely to have diabetes in later adulthood, compared to those who were not exposed to this childhood adversity, report researchers from the University of Toronto and University of Alabama in a recent study in SAGE-Open Medicine.

Read More: Incarceration News and Incarceration Current Events is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to