Nav: Home

A new spin on superconductivity

October 14, 2016

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have made a discovery that could lay the foundation for quantum superconducting devices. Their breakthrough solves one the main challenges to quantum computing: how to transmit spin information through superconducting materials.

Every electronic device -- from a supercomputer to a dishwasher -- works by controlling the flow of charged electrons. But electrons can carry so much more information than just charge; electrons also spin, like a gyroscope on axis.

Harnessing electron spin is really exciting for quantum information processing because not only can an electron spin up or down -- one or zero -- but it can also spin any direction between the two poles. Because it follows the rules of quantum mechanics, an electron can occupy all of those positions at once. Imagine the power of a computer that could calculate all of those positions simultaneously.

A whole field of applied physics, called spintronics, focuses on how to harness and measure electron spin and build spin equivalents of electronic gates and circuits.

By using superconducting materials through which electrons can move without any loss of energy, physicists hope to build quantum devices that would require significantly less power.

But there's a problem.

According to a fundamental property of superconductivity, superconductors can't transmit spin. Any electron pairs that pass through a superconductor will have the combined spin of zero.

In work published recently in Nature Physics, the Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials.

"We now have a way to control the spin of the transmitted electrons in simple superconducting devices," said Amir Yacoby, Professor of Physics and of Applied Physics at SEAS and senior author of the paper.

It's easy to think of superconductors as particle super highways but a better analogy would be a super carpool lane as only paired electrons can move through a superconductor without resistance.

These pairs are called Cooper Pairs and they interact in a very particular way. If the way they move in relation to each other (physicists call this momentum) is symmetric, then the pair's spin has to be asymmetric -- for example, one negative and one positive for a combined spin of zero. When they travel through a conventional superconductor, Cooper Pairs' momentum has to be zero and their orbit perfectly symmetrical.

But if you can change the momentum to asymmetric -- leaning toward one direction -- then the spin can be symmetric. To do that, you need the help of some exotic (aka weird) physics.

Superconducting materials can imbue non-superconducting materials with their conductive powers simply by being in close proximity. Using this principle, the researchers built a superconducting sandwich, with superconductors on the outside and mercury telluride in the middle. The atoms in mercury telluride are so heavy and the electrons move so quickly, that the rules of relativity start to apply.

"Because the atoms are so heavy, you have electrons that occupy high-speed orbits," said Hechen Ren, coauthor of the study and graduate student at SEAS. "When an electron is moving this fast, its electric field turns into a magnetic field which then couples with the spin of the electron. This magnetic field acts on the spin and gives one spin a higher energy than another."

So, when the Cooper Pairs hit this material, their spin begins to rotate.

"The Cooper Pairs jump into the mercury telluride and they see this strong spin orbit effect and start to couple differently," said Ren. "The homogenous breed of zero momentum and zero combined spin is still there but now there is also a breed of pairs that gains momentum, breaking the symmetry of the orbit. The most important part of that is that the spin is now free to be something other than zero."

The team could measure the spin at various points as the electron waves moved through the material. By using an external magnet, the researchers could tune the total spin of the pairs.

"This discovery opens up new possibilities for storing quantum information. Using the underlying physics behind this discovery provides also new possibilities for exploring the underlying nature of superconductivity in novel quantum materials," said Yacoby.
-end-


Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Related Magnetic Field Articles:

Understanding stars: How tornado-shaped flow in a dynamo strengthens the magnetic field
A new simulation based on the von-Kármán-Sodium (VKS) dynamo experiment takes a closer look at how the liquid vortex created by the device generates a magnetic field.
'Quartz' crystals at the Earth's core power its magnetic field
Scientists at the Earth-Life Science Institute at the Tokyo Institute of Technology report in Nature (Fen.
Brightest neutron star yet has a multipolar magnetic field
Scientists have identified a neutron star that is consuming material so fast it emits more x-rays than any other.
Confirmation of Wendelstein 7-X magnetic field
Physicist Sam Lazerson of the US Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has teamed with German scientists to confirm that the Wendelstein 7-X fusion energy device called a stellarator in Greifswald, Germany, produces high-quality magnetic fields that are consistent with their complex design.
High-precision magnetic field sensing
Scientists have developed a highly sensitive sensor to detect tiny changes in strong magnetic fields.
Brilliant burst in space reveals universe's magnetic field
Scientists have detected the brightest fast burst of radio waves in space to date -- locating the source of the event with more precision than previous efforts.
Optical magnetic field sensor can detect signals from the nervous system
The human body is controlled by electrical impulses in the brain, the heart and nervous system.
What did Earth's ancient magnetic field look like?
New work from Carnegie's Peter Driscoll suggests Earth's ancient magnetic field was significantly different than the present day field, originating from several poles rather than the familiar two.
Just what sustains Earth's magnetic field anyway?
Earth's magnetic field shields us from deadly cosmic radiation, and without it, life as we know it could not exist here.
Ironing out the mystery of Earth's magnetic field
The Earth's magnetic field has been existing for at least 3.4 billion years thanks to the low heat conduction capability of iron in the planet's core.

Related Magnetic Field Reading:

Earth's Magnetic Field Secrets: An Illusion Mixed With Reality
by Dennis Brooks (Author)

Power Tools for Health: How Pulsed Magnetic Fields (Pemfs) Help You
by Msc William Pawluk MD (Author), Caitlin Layne (Author)

Magnetic Fields' 69 Love Songs: A Field Guide (33 1/3)
by LD Beghtol (Author), Ken Emerson (Introduction)

Know Your Magnetic Field: Change Your Thinking, Change Your Life.
by William E. Gray (Author)

NOW 2 kNOW Electro-Magnetic Fields
by Dr. T G D'Alberto (Author)

The Electromagnetic Field (Dover Books on Physics)
by Dover Publications

Cosmic Magnetic Fields (Cambridge Astrophysics)
by Philipp P. Kronberg (Author)

Magnetic Fields: Expanding American Abstraction, 1960s to Today
by Valerie Cassel Oliver (Author), Lowery Stokes Sims (Author), Erin Dziedzic (Editor), Melissa Messina (Editor)

Electricity and Magnetism: An Introduction to the Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields, 2nd edition
by Oleg D. Jefimenko (Author)

Solar Magnetic Fields: From Measurements Towards Understanding (Space Sciences Series of ISSI)
by André Balogh (Editor), Edward Cliver (Editor), Gordon Petrie (Editor), Sami Solanki (Editor), Michael Thompson (Editor), Rudolf von Steiger (Editor)

Best Science Podcasts 2018

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2018. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Circular
We're told if the economy is growing, and if we keep producing, that's a good thing. But at what cost? This hour, TED speakers explore circular systems that regenerate and re-use what we already have. Guests include economist Kate Raworth, environmental activist Tristram Stuart, landscape architect Kate Orff, entrepreneur David Katz, and graphic designer Jessi Arrington.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#504 The Art of Logic
How can mathematics help us have better arguments? This week we spend the hour with "The Art of Logic in an Illogical World" author, mathematician Eugenia Cheng, as she makes her case that the logic of mathematics can combine with emotional resonance to allow us to have better debates and arguments. Along the way we learn a lot about rigorous logic using arguments you're probably having every day, while also learning a lot about our own underlying beliefs and assumptions.