Nav: Home

Astronomers first to see source of gravitational waves in visible light

October 16, 2017

[TORONTO] For the first time, astronomers have observed in visible light a cataclysmic cosmic event that generated gravitational waves detected on Earth.

The event was the merger of two neutron stars in a galaxy 130 million light-years away. The merger resulted in a supernova-like explosion, the light of which was first observed by a team of astronomers at the Carnegie Institution for Science's Las Campanas Observatory in northern Chile.

The breakthrough discovery of the visible counterpart of a gravitational-wave-triggering event marks the start of a new era in which astronomers can study cosmic phenomena using both gravitational wave experiments and traditional telescopes.

The discovery also sheds light on the nature of neutron star mergers, and provides insight into the origin of heavy elements such as gold and platinum--insight which has long remained elusive.

The team includes Carnegie-Dunlap Fellow Maria Drout, along with astronomers from the Carnegie; the University of California, Santa Cruz; and other institutions.

Gravitational wave detection triggers search for visible counterpart

Scientists from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo experiment detected the gravitational waves on August 17, 2017. They determined that the signal was the result of a binary neutron star merger--a first, as all previous detections were of binary black hole mergers.

While astronomers don't expect to see a visible counterpart to a binary black hole merger, they do when two neutron stars come together. So, when LIGO/Virgo scientists narrowed down the location of the event to a patch of the southern sky the size of over a hundred full moons, they notified the team of astronomers--and the search was on.

But, it was still daytime in Chile which, for Drout and her colleagues, meant a ten hour wait until sunset. Plus, when the sun finally set, the search area was nearing the horizon.

According to Drout, "We knew we only had about an hour at the beginning of the night to find the source before it set, so we had to act fast."

The astronomers began recording images of galaxies within the target area according to a careful search strategy they had prepared during the day. They brought to bear three telescopes at Las Campanas: the Swope and two Magellan telescopes. As they obtained images, the collaborators compared them with archival images of the same galaxies.

After examining galaxies in nine images, members of the team exchanged a short series of messages:

"found something

sending you a screenshot."

"wow!"

"!"

The astronomers had found what they were looking for: a bright, star-like object, designated SSS17a. It was located in a galaxy identified as NGC 4993 and had not been visible in archival images.

Further confirmation came from analysis led by Drout. It showed that aspects of the brightness of SSS17a were unlike any explosion that had been previously observed by astronomers. SSS17a was about as bright as a faint supernova, but its brightness decreased faster than a typical supernova, and it became redder and cooler at a faster rate than a typical supernova.

Follow-up analysis also supported the theory that most of the heavy elements in the Universe, like gold and platinum, were created in neutron star mergers and not in supernovae.

"As we followed the glow of the explosion over the few weeks when it was visible for a short time each night," says Drout, "it showed some key characteristics of being powered by the radioactive decay of these heavy elements."

This strongly suggests that these heavy elements were synthesized following the merger, solving a decades-old astrophysics question about how all the heavy elements in the Universe were forged.

"And this is just the beginning," says Drout. "We expect LIGO and Virgo to detect dozen of neutron star mergers in the coming decade. We are entering a new era of astrophysics."
-end-
Additional notes:

1) The gravitational wave event detected on August 17, 2017, is identified as GW170817, and is different from the black hole merger event detected on August 14, 2017, announced in September, and identified as GW170814.

2) The National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors are located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington; the Virgo detector, funded by CNRS and INFN, is located near Pisa, Italy.

3) Authors of the papers related to the discovery of SSS17a include astronomers from the University of Toronto's Dunlap Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics; Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science; University of California, Santa Cruz; University of Hawaií; University of California, Berkeley; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Pennsylvania State University; Universidad de La Serena; University of Copenhagen; Space Telescope Science Institute; Universidad Diego Portales; Millennium Institute of Astrophysics; Johns Hopkins University; California Institute of Technology; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; University of Victoria; NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics; Universidad de Valparaíso; Texas A&M University; University of Notre Dame; University of Sydney.

Image: Carnegie artists rendering;

Image caption: An artists rendition of merging neutron stars and the supernova-like explosion that results. Image:

Image: "before and after_SSS17a.jpg

Image caption: An image (r.) taken on August 17th with the Swope Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile shows SSS17a (arrow) in the galaxy NGC 4993. An image (l.) taken on April 28th with the Hubble Space Telescope. The neutron star merger has not occurred and SSS17a is not visible. Image: D.A. Coulter, et al.

For copies of the papers, contact scipak@aaas.org:

Discovery of Swope Supernova Survey 17a (SSS17a), the First Optical Counterpart to a Gravitational Wave Source

A Binary Neutron Star Origin For the R-Process: UV through near-IR Light Curves of GW170817/SSS17a

CONTACT INFORMATION:

Dr. Maria Drout
Dunlap Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics, University of Toronto
Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science
c: 319-541-6819
e: maria.drout@dunlap.utoronto.ca

Chris Sasaki
Communications Coordinator | Press Officer
Dunlap Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics
University of Toronto
p: 416-978-6613
e: csasaki@dunlap.utoronto.ca
w: dunlap.utoronto.ca

The Dunlap Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics at the University of Toronto is an endowed research institute with over 70 faculty, postdocs, students and staff, dedicated to innovative technology, ground-breaking research, world-class training, and public engagement. The research themes of its faculty and Dunlap Fellows span the Universe and include: optical, infrared and radio instrumentation; Dark Energy; large-scale structure; the Cosmic Microwave Background; the interstellar medium; galaxy evolution; cosmic magnetism; and time-domain science.

The Dunlap Institute, Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, and Centre for Planetary Sciences comprise the leading centre for astronomical research in Canada, at the leading research university in the country, the University of Toronto.

The Dunlap Institute is committed to making its science, training and public outreach activities productive and enjoyable for everyone, regardless of gender, sexual orientation, disability, physical appearance, body size, race, nationality or religion.

Dunlap Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics

Related Gravitational Waves Articles:

Gravitational lensing provides a new measurement of the expansion of the universe
Amid ongoing uncertainty around the value of the Hubble Constant, uncertainty largely created by issues around measuring distances to objects in the galaxy, scientists who used a new distance technique have derived a different Hubble value, one 'somewhat higher than the standard value,' as Tamara Davis describes it in a related Perspective.
Gravitational waves leave a detectable mark, physicists say
New research shows that gravitational waves leave behind plenty of 'memories' that could help detect them even after they've passed.
DIY gravitational waves with 'BlackHoles@Home'
Researchers hoping to better interpret data from the detection of gravitational waves generated by the collision of binary black holes are turning to the public for help.
Gravitational waves will settle cosmic conundrum
Measurements of gravitational waves from approximately 50 binary neutron stars over the next decade will definitively resolve an intense debate about how quickly our universe is expanding, according to findings from an international team that includes University College London (UCL) and Flatiron Institute cosmologists.
LIGO and Virgo announce four new gravitational-wave detections
The LIGO and Virgo collaborations have now confidently detected gravitational waves from a total of 10 stellar-mass binary black hole mergers and one merger of neutron stars, which are the dense, spherical remains of stellar explosions.
Gravitational waves from a merged hyper-massive neutron star
For the first time astronomers have detected gravitational waves from a merged, hyper-massive neutron star.
Gravitational waves could shed light on dark matter
Black holes colliding, gravitational waves riding through space-time - and a huge instrument that allows scientists to investigate the fabric of the universe.
In five -10 years, gravitational waves could accurately measure universe's expansion
In a new paper published in Nature, three University of Chicago scientists estimate that given how quickly LIGO researchers saw the first neutron star collision, they could have a very accurate measurement of the rate of the expansion of the universe within five to ten years.
All in the family: Kin of gravitational wave source discovered
According to new research, an object named GRB150101B -- first reported as a gamma-ray burst in 2015 -- shares remarkable similarities with GW170817, the neutron star merger discovered by LIGO and observed by multiple light-gathering telescopes in 2017. The new analysis, published on Oct.
RUDN mathematicians confirmed the possibility of data transfer via gravitational waves
RUDN mathematicians analyzed the properties of gravitational waves in a generalized affine- metrical space (an algebraic construction operating the notions of a vector and a point) similarly to the properties of electromagnetic waves in Minkowski space-time.
More Gravitational Waves News and Gravitational Waves Current Events

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2019.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Accessing Better Health
Essential health care is a right, not a privilege ... or is it? This hour, TED speakers explore how we can give everyone access to a healthier way of life, despite who you are or where you live. Guests include physician Raj Panjabi, former NYC health commissioner Mary Bassett, researcher Michael Hendryx, and neuroscientist Rachel Wurzman.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#543 Give a Nerd a Gift
Yup, you guessed it... it's Science for the People's annual holiday episode that helps you figure out what sciency books and gifts to get that special nerd on your list. Or maybe you're looking to build up your reading list for the holiday break and a geeky Christmas sweater to wear to an upcoming party. Returning are pop-science power-readers John Dupuis and Joanne Manaster to dish on the best science books they read this past year. And Rachelle Saunders and Bethany Brookshire squee in delight over some truly delightful science-themed non-book objects for those whose bookshelves are already full. Since...
Now Playing: Radiolab

An Announcement from Radiolab