Nutritional and environmental interventions can help decrease child deaths worldwide

October 22, 2007

Interventions that improve nutrition and environmental conditions can also provide substantial gains toward the goal of reducing child mortality, especially when the interventions prioritize the poor, according to a study in the October 24/31 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on poverty and human development.

This issue of JAMA is being released early because of JAMA's participation in an international collaboration of more than 200 medical and scientific journals to publish articles simultaneously to raise awareness on the topic of the relationship between poverty and human development. This initiative is coordinated by the Council of Science Editors, and presentations regarding some of the studies in this Global Theme Issue will be webcast live from the National Institutes of Health (http://videocast.nih.gov/summary.asp?live=6239), including this study, presented by co-author Majid Ezzati, Ph.D., of the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston.

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were established in 2000 in a declaration adopted unanimously by U.N. member countries to focus resources and efforts toward critical global poverty, health, and sustainability problems. The MDGs set numerical targets to be achieved by 2015 and use socioeconomic, environmental, nutritional, and health indicators to monitor progress toward these targets, according to background information in the article. There are concerns that the progress toward some of the health-related MDGs has been slow in many countries, making it very difficult to achieve them by the target date.

Emmanuela Gakidou, Ph.D., formerly of the Initiative for Global Health, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., and colleagues conducted an assessment to estimate the reduction in child mortality as a result of interventions related to environmental and nutritional MDGs. They analyzed data on economic status, child underweight, water and sanitation, and household fuels from the Demographic and Health Surveys for 42 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. Data on disease-specific child mortality were from the World Health Organization, and data on hazardous effects of MDG-related risk factors were from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies.

"Implementing interventions that improve child nutrition and provide clean water and sanitation and clean household fuels to all children younger than five years would result in an estimated annual reduction in child deaths of 49,700 (14 percent) in Latin America and the Caribbean, 0.80 million (24 percent) in South Asia, and 1.47 million (31 percent) in sub-Saharan Africa," the authors report.

"These benefits would close 30 percent to 48 percent of the current regional gaps toward the MDG target for reducing child mortality," they continue.

The analysis found that environmental and nutritional interventions would have larger benefits for reducing deaths among children if the interventions were targeted to the poor first.

"Fifty percent coverage of the same environmental and nutritional interventions, as envisioned by the MDGs, would have 30 percent to 75 percent larger benefits for reducing child mortality if the interventions were targeted to the poor first than it would if the interventions benefited wealthier households, who nonetheless are also in need of MDG-related interventions," the authors write.

"Pro-poor interventions have larger aggregate benefits, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, because they deliver environmental and nutritional interventions to children who are most susceptible to dying of such exposures, possibly because of limited access to medical services," they conclude.
-end-
(JAMA. 2007;298(16):1876-1887. Available pre-embargo to the media at www.jamamedia.org)

Editor's Note: Emmanuela Gakidou, Ph.D., is now with the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle. Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc.

More information about the Council of Science Editors' Global Theme Issue on Poverty and Human Development is available at http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/globalthemeissue.cfm.

More information about the NIH Global Theme Issue event, 10 a.m. (ET) Monday, October 22, 2007, is available at http://www.fic.nih.gov/news/events/cse.htm.

The JAMA Network Journals

Related Poverty Articles from Brightsurf:

COVID-19 second wave in Myanmar causes dramatic increases in poverty
New evidence combining surveys from urban and rural Myanmar and simulation analysis find COVID-19 second wave dramatically increasing poverty and food insecurity.

Advancing the accurate tracking of energy poverty
IIASA researchers have developed a novel measurement framework to track energy poverty that better aligns with the services people lack rather than capturing the mere absence of physical connections to a source of electricity.

If you're poor, poverty is an environmental issue
A survey from Cornell researchers -- conducted among more than 1,100 US residents -- found that there were, in fact, demographic differences in how people viewed environmental issues, with racial and ethnic minorities and lower-income people more likely to consider human factors such as racism and poverty as environmental, in addition to more ecological issues like toxic fumes from factories or car exhaust.

Poverty associated with suicide risk in children and adolescents
Between 2007 to 2016, nearly 21,000 children ages 5-19 years old died by suicide.

New index maps relationships between poverty and accessibility in Brazil
Poor transportation availability can result in poor access to health care and employment, hence reinforcing the cycle of poverty and concerning health outcomes such as low life expectancy and high child mortality in rural Brazil.

Repeated periods of poverty accelerate the ageing process
People who have found themselves below the relative poverty threshold four or more times in their adult life age significantly earlier than others.

Poverty as disease trap
The realities of subsistence living in a region of Senegal hard hit by schistosomiasis make reinfection likely, despite mass drug administration.

Persistent poverty affects one in five UK children
Persistent poverty affects one in five children in the UK, and is associated with poor physical and mental health in early adolescence, suggests research published online in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

Poverty leaves a mark on our genes
In this study, researchers found evidence that poverty can become embedded across wide swaths of the genome.

Satellite images reveal global poverty
How far have we come in achieving the UN's sustainable development goals that we are committed to nationally and internationally?

Read More: Poverty News and Poverty Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.