Is duodenal biopsy necessary in celiac disease diagnosis for children and adults?

October 22, 2009

Duodenal biopsy remains the gold standard for celiac disease (CD) diagnosis. However, it has several pitfalls and requires an invasive procedure in children. In the past few years, a more prominent role for a definitive diagnosis based solely on serology has been proposed. The predictive value of high levels of anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies has also been reported in retrospective CD cohorts. Based on these studies, some authors have proposed to start a gluten-free diet (GFD) for those patients with high tTG antibody levels, without duodenal biopsy. There is no agreement to start a GFD without biopsy to confirm mucosal atrophy. There are age-related differences in CD diagnosis that may be taken into account to evaluate the predictive value of tTG antibody for mucosal atrophy.

A research team, led by Dr. Santiago Vivas from Hospital de León recruited a total of 324 patients with celiac disease (CD; 97 children and 227 adults) prospectively at two tertiary centers. Human IgA class anti-tTG antibody measurement and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were performed at diagnosis. A second biopsy was performed in 40 asymptomatic adults on a gluten-free diet (GFD) and with normal tTG levels.

Their study will be published on October 14, 2009 in the World Journal of Gastroenterology.

In this study, adults showed less severe histopathology (26% vs 63%; P < 0.0001) and lower tTG antibody titers than children. Levels of tTG antibody correlated with Marsh type in both populations (r = 0.661; P < 0.0001). Multiple logistic regression revealed that only tTG antibody was an independent predictor for Marsh type 3 lesions, but clinical presentation type and age were not. A cut-off point of 30 U tTG antibody yielded the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.854). Based on the predictive value of this cut-off point, up to 95% of children and 53% of adults would be correctly diagnosed without biopsy. Despite GFDs and decreased tTG antibody levels, 25% of the adults did not recover from villous atrophy during the second year after diagnosis.

The authors suggest that because of the high predictive value of tTG antibody for mucosal atrophy, duodenal biopsy may not always be necessary. In children, CD diagnosis may only require clinical and serological features, thus avoiding an invasive procedure, and starting an earlier GFD. In contrast, for adults, CD presentation and monitoring are different, thus rendering necessary a histopathological confirmation in all the cases at diagnosis, and in some selected cases at follow-up on a GFD. Future CD guidelines may take into account these age-related differences.
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Reference: Vivas S, Ruiz de Morales JG, Riestra S, Arias L, Fuentes D, Alvarez N, Calleja S, Hernando M, Herrero B, Casqueiro J, Rodrigo L. Duodenal biopsy may be avoided when high transglutaminase antibody titers are present. World J Gastroenterol 2009; 15(38): 4775-4780

http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/15/4775.asp

Correspondence to: Santiago Vivas, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital de León. Altos de Nava s/n, 24080 León, Spain. svivasa@medynet.com

Telephone: +34-987-234900 Fax: +34-987-233322

About World Journal of Gastroenterology

World Journal of Gastroenterology (WJG), a leading international journal in gastroenterology and hepatology, has established a reputation for publishing first class research on esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, viral hepatitis, colorectal cancer, and H. pylori infection and provides a forum for both clinicians and scientists. WJG has been indexed and abstracted in Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, Science Citation Index Expanded (also known as SciSearch) and Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Index Medicus, MEDLINE and PubMed, Chemical Abstracts, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, Abstracts Journals, Nature Clinical Practice Gastroenterology and Hepatology, CAB Abstracts and Global Health. ISI JCR 2008 IF: 2.081. WJG is a weekly journal published by WJG Press. The publication dates are the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of every month. WJG is supported by The National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 30224801 and No. 30424812, and was founded with the name of China National Journal of New Gastroenterology on October 1, 1995, and renamed WJG on January 25, 1998.

World Journal of Gastroenterology

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