Where deep learning meets metamaterials

October 23, 2018

Breakthroughs in the field of nanophotonics -- how light behaves on the nanometer scale -- have paved the way for the invention of "metamaterials," man-made materials that have enormous applications, from remote nanoscale sensing to energy harvesting and medical diagnostics. But their impact on daily life has been hindered by a complicated manufacturing process with large margins of error.

Now a new interdisciplinary Tel Aviv University study published in Light: Science and Applications demonstrates a way of streamlining the process of designing and characterizing basic nanophotonic, metamaterial elements. The study was led by Dr. Haim Suchowski of TAU's School of Physics and Astronomy and Prof. Lior Wolf of TAU's Blavatnik School of Computer Science and conducted by research scientist Dr. Michael Mrejen and TAU graduate students Itzik Malkiel, Achiya Nagler and Uri Arieli.

"The process of designing metamaterials consists of carving nanoscale elements with a precise electromagnetic response," Dr. Mrejen says. "But because of the complexity of the physics involved, the design, fabrication and characterization processes of these elements require a huge amount of trial and error, dramatically limiting their applications."

Deep Learning a key to precision manufacturing

"Our new approach depends almost entirely on Deep Learning, a computer network inspired by the layered and hierarchical architecture of the human brain," Prof. Wolf explains. "It's one of the most advanced forms of machine learning, responsible for major advances in technology, including speech recognition, translation and image processing. We thought it would be the right approach for designing nanophotonic, metamaterial elements."

The scientists fed a Deep Learning network with 15,000 artificial experiments to teach the network the complex relationship between the shapes of the nanoelements and their electromagnetic responses. "We demonstrated that a 'trained' Deep Learning network can predict, in a split second, the geometry of a fabricated nanostructure," Dr. Suchowski says.

The researchers also demonstrated that their approach successfully produces the novel design of nanoelements that can interact with specific chemicals and proteins.

Broadly applicable results

"These results are broadly applicable to so many fields, including spectroscopy and targeted therapy, i.e., the efficient and quick design of nanoparticles capable of targeting malicious proteins," says Dr. Suchowski. "For the first time, a novel Deep Neural Network, trained with thousands of synthetic experiments, was not only able to determine the dimensions of nanosized objects but was also capable of allowing the rapid design and characterization of metasurface-based optical elements for targeted chemicals and biomolecules.

"Our solution also works the other way around. Once a shape is fabricated, it usually takes expensive equipment and time to determine the precise shape that has actually been fabricated. Our computer-based solution does that in a split second based on a simple transmission measurement."

The researchers, who have also written a patent on their new method, are currently expanding their Deep Learning algorithms to include the chemical characterization of nanoparticles.
-end-
American Friends of Tel Aviv University supports Israel's most influential, comprehensive and sought-after center of higher learning, Tel Aviv University (TAU). TAU is recognized and celebrated internationally for creating an innovative, entrepreneurial culture on campus that generates inventions, startups and economic development in Israel. TAU is ranked ninth in the world, and first in Israel, for producing start-up founders of billion-dollar companies, an achievement that surpassed several Ivy League universities. To date, 2,500 US patents have been filed by Tel Aviv University researchers -- ranking TAU #1 in Israel, #10 outside of the US and #43 in the world.

American Friends of Tel Aviv University

Related Human Brain Articles from Brightsurf:

Does the human brain resemble the Universe?
An astrophysicist of the University of Bologna and a neurosurgeon of the University of Verona compared the network of neuronal cells in the human brain with the cosmic network of galaxies... and surprising similarities emerged

New multiscale view of the human brain
Researchers from University of Barcelona study how multilayers that form the human brain interact at different resolutions

New model of human brain 'conversations' could inform research on brain disease, cognition
A team of Indiana University neuroscientists has built a new model of human brain networks that sheds light on how the brain functions.

Researchers explore how the human brain is so resilient
Future technology may be able to monitor and modify the brain to produce enhanced team performance, while increasing the efficiency and accuracy of decisions.

Nanoelectronics learn the same way as the human brain
Activities in the field of artificial intelligence, like teaching robots to walk, demand ever more powerful, yet at the same time more economical computer chips.

New genomic atlas of the developing human brain
Researchers at Gladstone Institutes and UC San Francisco (UCSF) Weill Institute for Neurosciences have created a comprehensive region-specific atlas of the regulatory regions of the genome linked to human embryonic brain development.

Human brain size gene triggers bigger brain in monkeys
Dresden and Japanese researchers show that a human-specific gene causes a larger neocortex in the common marmoset, a non-human primate.

Unique insight into development of the human brain: Model of the early embryonic brain
Stem cell researchers from the University of Copenhagen have designed a model of an early embryonic brain.

New method provides unique insight into the development of the human brain
Stem cell researchers at Lund University in Sweden have developed a new research model of the early embryonic brain.

One step closer to understanding the human brain
An international team of scientists led by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden has launched a comprehensive overview of all proteins expressed in the brain, published today in the journal Science.

Read More: Human Brain News and Human Brain Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.