Species loss affects basis of life of humans

October 27, 2020

Current species loss directly affects the life of humans as regards nutrition, water supply, construction materials, and energy sources. This is confirmed by the Jena Experiment, one of the biggest experiments on biodiversity in which scientists of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) were involved. The Jena consortium now reports in Nature Ecology & Evolution that ecosystem functions cannot only be predicted from the properties of plants, but that the entire complexity of biotic and abiotic interactions has to be considered. (DOI: 10.1038/s41559-020-01316-9)

Biodiversity on Earth, including the diversity of species, genetic diversity within species, and the diversity of ecosystems, is the basis of life of all organisms, including humans. Fundamental processes depend on biodiversity, such as plant growth and the stability of material cycles. However, biological diversity is decreasing continuously. According to researchers, this loss has meanwhile reached an alarming extent. For this reason, numerous scientific studies and experiments cover the importance of biodiversity to the functioning of ecosystems and their use for humans.

Species Loss Has Direct Consequences for Humans

One of the biggest and longest projects on biodiversity is the Jena Experiment that was funded by the German Research Foundation from 2002 to 2019 (DFG; research groups FOR 456 and FOR 1451) and coordinated by Jena University. In the experiment researchers from different scientific institutions studied the effects of biodiversity on grassland. Through comprehensive quantification of cycles of major chemical elements and investigation of above-ground and underground processes, they determined basic mechanisms. Professor Wolfgang Wilcke, Head of the Geomorphology and Soil Science Group of KIT's Institute of Geography and Geoecology (IFGG), and Dr. Sophia Leimer, scientist and member of this group, participated in the experiment and studied the relationship between plant diversity and the nitrogen and phosphorus cycle.

"The findings of the Jena Experiment confirm that current species loss has directly consequences for humankind," Wilcke says. "As a result, functions of nature that may apparently be taken for granted break off." According to the geoecologist, examples are the production of biomass for food, fabrics, construction materials, and fuels as well as water and nutrient cycles. Their changes have severe impacts, such as floods, drought, or groundwater pollution. "To stop this development and to protect species diversity, further research and practical measures on all levels are needed, from the individual consumer to national governments to international bodies," Wilcke continues.

Significance of Biodiversity Can Only Be Determined by Interdisciplinary Research

In a series of three publications in Nature Ecology & Evolution, the Jena consortium published major results between 2018 and 2020: The more ecosystem functions, such as a closed nutrient cycle, and resulting ecosystem services (e.g. biomass production) are to be achieved, the more plant species are needed, the scientists say.

Together with the BioDIV Experiment in the USA, the Jena consortium found that the results of artificial experiments, in which mixes of plant species were usually composed randomly, are stable and may be transferred to the natural world.

In its most recent publication, the Jena Experiment concludes that ecosystem functions and services cannot only be predicted from the properties of plants. It is rather necessary to consider the entire complexity of biotic and abiotic interactions of an ecosystem, i.e. all interactions in the living and non-living nature.

Meyer, S.T., R. Ptacnik, H. Hillebrand, H. Bessler, N. Buchmann, A. Ebeling, N. Eisenhauer, C. Engels, M. Fischer, S. Halle, A.-M. Klein, Y. Oelmann, C. Roscher, T. Rottstock, C. Scherber, S. Scheu, B. Schmid, E.-D. Schulze, V.M. Temperton, T. Tscharntke, W. Voigt, A. Weigelt, W. Wilcke, and W.W. Weisser (2018): Biodiversity-multifunctionality relationships depend on identity and number of measured functions. Nat Ecol Evol 2, 44-49, published online on November 27, 2017, DOI: 10.1038/s41559-017-0391-4

Jochum, M., M. Fischer, F. Isbell, C. Roscher, F. van der Plas, S. Boch, G. Boenisch, N. Buchmann, J.A. Catford, J. Cavender-Bares, A. Ebeling, N. Eisenhauer, G. Gleixner, N. Hölzel, J. Kattge, V.H. Klaus, T. Kleinebecker, M. Lange, G. Le Provost, S.T. Meyer, R. Molina-Venegas, L. Mommer, Y. Oelmann, C. Penone, D. Prati, P.B. Reich, A. Rindisbacher, D. Schäfer, S. Scheu, B. Schmid, D. Tilman, T. Tscharntke, A. Vogel, C. Wagg, A. Weigelt, W.W. Weisser, W. Wilcke, and P. Manning (2020): The results of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments are realistic. Nat Ecol Evol, published online on August 24, 2020, DOI: 10.1038/s41559-020-1280-9

van der Plas, F., T. Schröder-Georgi, A. Weigelt, K. Barry, S.T.Meyer, A. Alzate, R.L. Barnard, N. Buchmann, H. de Kroon, A. Ebeling, N. Eisenhauer, C. Engels, M. Fischer, G. Gleixner, A. Hildebrandt, E. Koller-France, S. Leimer, A. Milcu, L. Mommer, P.A. Niklaus, Y. Oelmann, C. Roscher, C. Scherber, M. Scherer-Lorenzen, S. Scheu, B. Schmid, E.-D. Schulze, V. Temperton, T. Tscharntke, W. Voigt, W.W. Weisser, W. Wilcke, and C. Wirth (2020): Plant traits alone are poor predictors of ecosystem properties and long-term ecosystem functioning. Nat Ecol Evol, published online on October 05, 2020, DOI: 10.1038/s41559-020-01316-9

To the latest publication:

More information on the Jena Experiment:

More about the KIT Climate and Environment Center:

Press contact:
Sandra Wiebe
Press Officer
Phone: +49 721 608-41172
Email: sandra.wiebe@kit.edu

Being "The Research University in the Helmholtz-Association," KIT creates and imparts knowledge for the society and the environment. It is the objective to make significant contributions to the global challenges in the fields of energy, mobility and information. For this, about 9,300 employees cooperate in a broad range of disciplines in natural sciences, engineering sciences, economics, and the humanities and social sciences. KIT prepares its 24,400 students for responsible tasks in society, industry, and science by offering research-based study programs. Innovation efforts at KIT build a bridge between important scientific findings and their application for the benefit of society, economic prosperity, and the preservation of our natural basis of life. KIT is one of the German universities of excellence.

This press release is available on the internet at https://www.kit.edu/kit/english/pi_2020.php.

Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)

Related Biodiversity Articles from Brightsurf:

Biodiversity hypothesis called into question
How can we explain the fact that no single species predominates?

Using the past to maintain future biodiversity
New research shows that safeguarding species and ecosystems and the benefits they provide for society against future climatic change requires effective solutions which can only be formulated from reliable forecasts.

Changes in farming urgent to rescue biodiversity
Humans depend on farming for their survival but this activity takes up more than one-third of the world's landmass and endangers 62% of all threatened species.

Predicting the biodiversity of rivers
Biodiversity and thus the state of river ecosystems can now be predicted by combining environmental DNA with hydrological methods, researchers from the University of Zurich and Eawag have found.

About the distribution of biodiversity on our planet
Large open-water fish predators such as tunas or sharks hunt for prey more intensively in the temperate zone than near the equator.

Bargain-hunting for biodiversity
The best bargains for conserving some of the world's most vulnerable salamanders and other vertebrate species can be found in Central Texas and the Appalachians, according to new conservation tools developed at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS) at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

Researchers solve old biodiversity mystery
The underlying cause for why some regions are home to an extremely large number of animal species may be found in the evolutionary adaptations of species, and how they limit their dispersion to specific natural habitats.

Biodiversity offsetting is contentious -- here's an alternative
A new approach to compensate for the impact of development may be an effective alternative to biodiversity offsetting -- and help nations achieve international biodiversity targets.

Biodiversity yields financial returns
Farmers could increase their revenues by increasing biodiversity on their land.

Biodiversity and wind energy
The location and operation of wind energy plants are often in direct conflict with the legal protection of endangered species.

Read More: Biodiversity News and Biodiversity Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.