Nav: Home

When fat cells change their color

October 28, 2016

In mammals, three types of adipose tissues exist. White adipocytes are mainly located in the abdominal and subcutaneous areas of the body and highly adapted to store excess energy. Conversely, beige and brown adipocytes are highly energy-expending by generating heat. A team with the Freiburg researchers Prof. Dr. Roland Schuele and Dr. Delphine Duteil has now shown that the epigenetic enzyme lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) plays a key role in maintaining the metabolic properties of brown fat. "The changes induced by Lsd1 ablation have secondary effects on body weight gain and glucose tolerance with aging," explains Prof. Schuele. The researchers selectively ablated Lsd1 and inactivated its catalytic activity in brown adipocytes, which triggered a profound whitening of brown adipose tissue: The colour of the brown fat cells became paler, their size increased and they started to store energy instead of expending it. By understanding these processes, scientists want to develop new strategies to counteract obesity and diabetes.

Lsd1 influences fat cells by using a dual mechanism, as the researchers from Freiburg revealed in their study. The enzyme inhibits the expression of the genes which contain the information for white adipocytes. Simultaneously, Lsd1 promotes the expression of genes containing information for brown adipocytes. The analyses by the team have shown that these opposing functions of Lsd1 are orchestrated by distinct complexes involving the enzyme.

Furthermore, according to the researchers' analyses, Lsd1 is necessary to regulate metabolism, for example for fatty acid oxidation. If Lsd1 is inhibited in mice, the animals' cells take up more glucose, their capacities to convert glucose into energy increases, and they use less fatty acid, for example. Thus, the animals significantly gain weight. An accumulation of intermediates of glycolysis - the process of the breakdown of glucose - in the organism contributes to the observed whitening of brown fat tissue. However, the study has also shown that mice in which Lsd1 was ablated are protected against glucose intolerance, which is often observed in the case of type-2 diabetes. In this illness, insulin cannot sufficiently regulate the blood sugar after glucose feed. Lsd1 inhibitors have already entered clinical trials, for which the findings of the Freiburg research team could also be useful.
-end-
Roland Schuele and Delphine Duteil are from the Department of Urology and the Clinical Research Center at the Medical Center - University of Freiburg. Schuele is a member of the Cluster of Excellence BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies at the University of Freiburg.

Original publication:

D. Duteil, M. Tosic, F. Lausecker, H.Z. Nenseth, J.M. Müller, S. Urban, D. Willmann, K. Petroll, N. Messaddeq, L. Arrigoni, T. Manke, J.W. Kornfeld, J.C. Brüning, V. Zagoriy, M. Meret, J. Dengjel, T. Kanouni, R. Schüle (2016). Lsd1 Ablation Triggers Metabolic Reprogramming of Brown Adipose Tissue. Cell Rep. 18;17(4):1008-1021. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.09.053.

Article about Roland Schuele's research in "uni'wissen": http://www.pr2.uni-freiburg.de/publikationen/uniwissen/uniwissen-2014-1/#/8

Contact:

Prof. Dr. Roland Schuele
Department of Urology and Clinical Research Center
Medical Center - University of Freiburg
BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies
University of Freiburg
Phone: +49 (0)761/270-63100
E-Mail: roland.schuele@uniklinik-freiburg.de

BIOSS - Centre for Biological Signalling Studies

Related Diabetes Articles:

Maternal gestational diabetes linked to diabetes in children
Children and youth of mothers who had gestational diabetes during pregnancy are at increased risk of diabetes themselves, according to new research published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
Two diabetes medications don't slow progression of type 2 diabetes in youth
In youth with impaired glucose tolerance or recent-onset type 2 diabetes, neither initial treatment with long-acting insulin followed by the drug metformin, nor metformin alone preserved the body's ability to make insulin, according to results published online June 25 in Diabetes Care.
People with diabetes visit the dentist less frequently despite link between diabetes, oral health
Adults with diabetes are less likely to visit the dentist than people with prediabetes or without diabetes, finds a new study led by researchers at NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing and East Carolina University's Brody School of Medicine.
Diabetes, but not diabetes drug, linked to poor pregnancy outcomes
New research indicates that pregnant women with pre-gestational diabetes who take metformin are at a higher risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes -- such as major birth defects and pregnancy loss -- than the general population, but their increased risk is not due to metformin but diabetes.
New oral diabetes drug shows promise in phase 3 trial for patients with type 1 diabetes
A University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus study finds sotagliflozin helps control glucose and reduces the need for insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes.
Can continuous glucose monitoring improve diabetes control in patients with type 1 diabetes who inject insulin
Two studies in the Jan. 24/31 issue of JAMA find that use of a sensor implanted under the skin that continuously monitors glucose levels resulted in improved levels in patients with type 1 diabetes who inject insulin multiple times a day, compared to conventional treatment.
Complications of type 2 diabetes affect quality of life, care can lead to diabetes burnout
T2D Lifestyle, a national survey by Health Union of more than 400 individuals experiencing type 2 diabetes (T2D), reveals that patients not only struggle with commonly understood complications, but also numerous lesser known ones that people do not associate with diabetes.
A better way to predict diabetes
An international team of researchers has discovered a simple, accurate new way to predict which women with gestational diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes after delivery.
The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology: Older Americans with diabetes living longer without disability, US study shows
Older Americans with diabetes born in the 1940s are living longer and with less disability performing day to day tasks than those born 10 years earlier, according to new research published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal.
Reverse your diabetes -- and you can stay diabetes-free long-term
A new study from Newcastle University, UK, has shown that people who reverse their diabetes and then keep their weight down remain free of diabetes.
More Diabetes News and Diabetes Current Events

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Rethinking Anger
Anger is universal and complex: it can be quiet, festering, justified, vengeful, and destructive. This hour, TED speakers explore the many sides of anger, why we need it, and who's allowed to feel it. Guests include psychologists Ryan Martin and Russell Kolts, writer Soraya Chemaly, former talk radio host Lisa Fritsch, and business professor Dan Moshavi.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#538 Nobels and Astrophysics
This week we start with this year's physics Nobel Prize awarded to Jim Peebles, Michel Mayor, and Didier Queloz and finish with a discussion of the Nobel Prizes as a way to award and highlight important science. Are they still relevant? When science breakthroughs are built on the backs of hundreds -- and sometimes thousands -- of people's hard work, how do you pick just three to highlight? Join host Rachelle Saunders and astrophysicist, author, and science communicator Ethan Siegel for their chat about astrophysics and Nobel Prizes.