Nav: Home

A tiny machine

October 28, 2016

In 1959 renowned physicist Richard Feynman, in his talk "Plenty of Room at the Bottom," spoke of a future in which tiny machines could perform huge feats. Like many forward-looking concepts, his molecule and atom-sized world remained for years in the realm of science fiction.

And then, scientists and other creative thinkers began to realize Feynman's nanotechnological visions.

In the spirit of Feynman's insight, and in response to the challenges he issued as a way to inspire scientific and engineering creativity, electrical and computer engineers at UC Santa Barbara have developed a design for a functional nanoscale computing device. The concept involves a dense, three-dimensional circuit operating on an unconventional type of logic that could, theoretically, be packed into a block no bigger than 50 nanometers on any side.

"Novel computing paradigms are needed to keep up with the demand for faster, smaller and more energy-efficient devices," said Gina Adam, postdoctoral researcher at UCSB's Department of Computer Science and lead author of the paper "Optimized stateful material implication logic for three dimensional data manipulation," published in the journal Nano Research. "In a regular computer, data processing and memory storage are separated, which slows down computation. Processing data directly inside a three-dimensional memory structure would allow more data to be stored and processed much faster."

While efforts to shrink computing devices have been ongoing for decades -- in fact, Feynman's challenges as he presented them in his 1959 talk have been met -- scientists and engineers continue to carve out room at the bottom for even more advanced nanotechnology. A nanoscale 8-bit adder operating in 50-by-50-by-50 nanometer dimension, put forth as part of the current Feynman Grand Prize challenge by the Foresight Institute, has not yet been achieved. However, the continuing development and fabrication of progressively smaller components is bringing this virus-sized computing device closer to reality, said Dmitri Strukov, a UCSB professor of computer science.

"Our contribution is that we improved the specific features of that logic and designed it so it could be built in three dimensions," he said.

Key to this development is the use of a logic system called material implication logic combined with memristors -- circuit elements whose resistance depends on the most recent charges and the directions of those currents that have flowed through them. Unlike the conventional computing logic and circuitry found in our present computers and other devices, in this form of computing, logic operation and information storage happen simultaneously and locally. This greatly reduces the need for components and space typically used to perform logic operations and to move data back and forth between operation and memory storage. The result of the computation is immediately stored in a memory element, which prevents data loss in the event of power outages -- a critical function in autonomous systems such as robotics.

In addition, the researchers reconfigured the traditionally two-dimensional architecture of the memristor into a three-dimensional block, which could then be stacked and packed into the space required to meet the Feynman Grand Prize Challenge.

"Previous groups show that individual blocks can be scaled to very small dimensions, let's say 10-by-10 nanometers," said Strukov, who worked at technology company Hewlett-Packard's labs when they ramped up development of memristors and material implication logic. By applying those results to his group's developments, he said, the challenge could easily be met.

The tiny memristors are being heavily researched in academia and in industry for their promising uses in memory storage and neuromorphic computing. While implementations of material implication logic are rather exotic and not yet mainstream, uses for it could pop up any time, particularly in energy scarce systems such as robotics and medical implants.

"Since this technology is still new, more research is needed to increase its reliability and lifetime and to demonstrate large scale three-dimensional circuits tightly packed in tens or hundreds of layers," Adam said.
-end-


University of California - Santa Barbara

Related Nanoscale Articles:

House cleaning on the nanoscale
A team of scientists at Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) has developed a novel mechanical cleaning method for surfaces on the nanoscale.
As electronics shrink to nanoscale, will they still be good as gold?
As circuit interconnects shrink to nanoscale, will the pressure caused by thermal expansion when current flows through wires cause gold to behave more like a liquid than a solid -- making nanoelectronics unreliable?
A joint venture at the nanoscale
Scientists at Argonne National Laboratory report fabricating and testing a superconducting nanowire device applicable to high-speed photon counting.
Bending diamond at the nanoscale
A team of Australian scientists has discovered diamond can be bent and deformed, at the nanoscale at least.
Creating a nanoscale on-off switch for heat
Researchers create a polymer thermal regulator that can quickly transform from a conductor to an insulator, and back again.
Magnetic tuning at the nanoscale
Physicists from the German research center Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) are working to produce engineered magnetic nanostructures and to tailor material properties at the nanoscale.
Scientists can now control thermal profiles at the nanoscale
Scientists have designed and tested an experimental system that uses a near-infrared laser to actively heat two gold nanorod antennae to different temperatures.
New study shows nanoscale pendulum coupling
In 1665, Lord Christiaan Huygens found that two pendulum clocks, hung in the same wooden structure, oscillated spontaneously and perfectly in line but in opposite directions: the clocks oscillated in anti-phase.
Research reveals liquid gold on the nanoscale
Swansea University researchers have discovered what liquid gold looks like on the nanoscale - and in doing so have mapped the way in which nanoparticles melt, which is relevant to the manufacturing and performance of nanotech devices such as bio-sensors, nanochips , gas sensors, and catalysts.
Nanoscale thermometers from diamond sparkles
The development of a novel, non-invasive technique that uses quantum light to measure temperature at the nanoscale will have immediate applications for both industry and fundamental scientific research, scientists say.
More Nanoscale News and Nanoscale Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Climate Mindset
In the past few months, human beings have come together to fight a global threat. This hour, TED speakers explore how our response can be the catalyst to fight another global crisis: climate change. Guests include political strategist Tom Rivett-Carnac, diplomat Christiana Figueres, climate justice activist Xiye Bastida, and writer, illustrator, and artist Oliver Jeffers.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#562 Superbug to Bedside
By now we're all good and scared about antibiotic resistance, one of the many things coming to get us all. But there's good news, sort of. News antibiotics are coming out! How do they get tested? What does that kind of a trial look like and how does it happen? Host Bethany Brookeshire talks with Matt McCarthy, author of "Superbugs: The Race to Stop an Epidemic", about the ins and outs of testing a new antibiotic in the hospital.
Now Playing: Radiolab

Speedy Beet
There are few musical moments more well-worn than the first four notes of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. But in this short, we find out that Beethoven might have made a last-ditch effort to keep his music from ever feeling familiar, to keep pushing his listeners to a kind of psychological limit. Big thanks to our Brooklyn Philharmonic musicians: Deborah Buck and Suzy Perelman on violin, Arash Amini on cello, and Ah Ling Neu on viola. And check out The First Four Notes, Matthew Guerrieri's book on Beethoven's Fifth. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.