Risk of cardiac arrest depends on where you live

October 30, 2012

Your chances of having a sudden cardiac arrest can depend on where you live, warned Dr. Paul Dorian today at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress 2012 in Toronto, co-hosted by the Heart and Stroke Foundation and the Canadian Cardiovascular Society.

His study of Greater Toronto Area (GTA) neighborhoods with high and low rates of cardiac arrests found that the factors causing increased risk are complex. "The reasons are more multifaceted than traditional explanations of income, social economic status and education levels," says Dr. Dorian, who is a researcher and cardiologist at Toronto's Kennan Research Centre, St. Michael's Hospital. "It's important to understand these differences to support better health outcomes."

He says his team is exploring heart-healthy behaviours, cultural and ethnic factors as possible other factors that may account for the large differences in cardiac arrest rates between neighbourhoods.

The research, led by Katherine Allan, PhD candidate, compared 20 GTA neighbourhoods with the highest and lowest incidences of cardiac arrests that take place in the home or public places.

The demographic, social and economic characteristics of the neighbourhoods were compared to identify similarities or differences, including age, sex, income levels, education and social inclusion. Rates of diabetes and high blood pressure were also compared.

"Cardio-toxic neighbourhoods," a term coined to describe communities with higher incidence of cardiac arrests, have three to five times higher rates of cardiac arrests. Cardiotoxic neighbourhoods tended to comprise older persons with slightly higher rates of diabetes and high blood pressure. No single factor explained the variability between the neighbourhoods.

The study looked at over 5,500 cardiac arrests in the GTA between 2006 and 2010.The residential address of each out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patient was spatially mapped to one of 140 Toronto neighbourhoods.

The 10 neighbourhoods with the highest cardiac arrest rates (cardiotoxic) and the 10 with the lowest rates (cardiosafe) were identified. Cardiotoxic neighbourhoods tended to comprise older people with slightly higher rates of diabetes and high blood pressure.

"The bottom line is that where you live does affect your risk of cardiac arrest. Our research suggests wealth, education and social inclusion are important factors but only explain part of the puzzle," says Dr. Dorian.

The link between our health and where we live is well established, says Heart and Stroke Foundation spokesperson Dr. Beth Abramson. "With Canada's high rates of physical inactivity and obesity, it is more important than ever to build communities that encourage active, healthy lifestyles."

She says healthy community design strategies - such as good public transit, well-maintained parks, and safe, efficient walking and cycling networks − make it easier to get the physical activity Canadians need to promote heart health and maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Abramson recommends that municipal governments, community planners and developers work together to create communities that support active, healthy living in Canada.

Cardiac arrest is a medical emergency which occurs when the heart suddenly and unexpectedly stops beating. Every 12 minutes someone in Canada has a sudden cardiac arrest. Up to 40,000 occur each year in Canada.

Up to 85 per cent happen in homes and public places such as malls, hockey arenas or workplaces - and half are witnessed by a bystander such as a family member, co-worker or friend. The survival rate (outside of a hospital) is approximately five per cent.

As we continue to advocate for heart-healthy communities, Dr. Abramson says we need to do everything we can to improve survival rates. "The Foundation is working in communities across Canada to advocate for the placement of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in public places and to train Canadians how to use AEDs in combination with CPR."

She notes that every minute counts: A bystander who knows how to respond to a cardiac arrest can increase the odds of survival and recovery by 30 per cent or more.
-end-
Statements and conclusions of study authors are solely those of the study authors and do not necessarily reflect Foundation or CCS policy or position. The Heart and Stroke Foundation and the Canadian Cardiovascular Society make no representation or warranty as to their accuracy or reliability.

The Heart and Stroke Foundation (heartandstroke.ca), a volunteer-based health charity, leads in eliminating heart disease and stroke and reducing their impact through the advancement of research and its application, the promotion of healthy living and advocacy.

Healthy lives free of heart disease and stroke. Together we will make it happen.

For more information and/or interviews, contact the CCC 2012 MEDIA OFFICE AT 416-585-3781 (Oct 28-31)

OR

Diane Hargrave Public Relations
416-467-9954 ext. 104
dhprbks@interlog.com

Congress information and media registration is at www.cardiocongress.org

After October 31, 2012 contact:

Jane-Diane Fraser
Heart and Stroke Foundation
(613) 569-4361 ext 273
jfraser@hsf.ca

Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

Related Diabetes Articles from Brightsurf:

New diabetes medication reduced heart event risk in those with diabetes and kidney disease
Sotagliflozin - a type of medication known as an SGLT2 inhibitor primarily prescribed for Type 2 diabetes - reduces the risk of adverse cardiovascular events for patients with diabetes and kidney disease.

Diabetes drug boosts survival in patients with type 2 diabetes and COVID-19 pneumonia
Sitagliptin, a drug to lower blood sugar in type 2 diabetes, also improves survival in diabetic patients hospitalized with COVID-19, suggests a multicenter observational study in Italy.

Making sense of diabetes
Throughout her 38-year nursing career, Laurel Despins has progressed from a bedside nurse to a clinical nurse specialist and has worked in medical, surgical and cardiac intensive care units.

Helping teens with type 1 diabetes improve diabetes control with MyDiaText
Adolescence is a difficult period of development, made more complex for those with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Diabetes-in-a-dish model uncovers new insights into the cause of type 2 diabetes
Researchers have developed a novel 'disease-in-a-dish' model to study the basic molecular factors that lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, uncovering the potential existence of major signaling defects both inside and outside of the classical insulin signaling cascade, and providing new perspectives on the mechanisms behind insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and possibly opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics for the disease.

Tele-diabetes to manage new-onset diabetes during COVID-19 pandemic
Two new case studies highlight the use of tele-diabetes to manage new-onset type 1 diabetes in an adult and an infant during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Genetic profile may predict type 2 diabetes risk among women with gestational diabetes
Women who go on to develop type 2 diabetes after having gestational, or pregnancy-related, diabetes are more likely to have particular genetic profiles, suggests an analysis by researchers at the National Institutes of Health and other institutions.

Maternal gestational diabetes linked to diabetes in children
Children and youth of mothers who had gestational diabetes during pregnancy are at increased risk of diabetes themselves, according to new research published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Two diabetes medications don't slow progression of type 2 diabetes in youth
In youth with impaired glucose tolerance or recent-onset type 2 diabetes, neither initial treatment with long-acting insulin followed by the drug metformin, nor metformin alone preserved the body's ability to make insulin, according to results published online June 25 in Diabetes Care.

People with diabetes visit the dentist less frequently despite link between diabetes, oral health
Adults with diabetes are less likely to visit the dentist than people with prediabetes or without diabetes, finds a new study led by researchers at NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing and East Carolina University's Brody School of Medicine.

Read More: Diabetes News and Diabetes Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.