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Minimally invasive surgery leads to worse survival for cervical cancer patients

October 31, 2018

  • 'We recommend only using open surgery for cervical cancer'
  • 60 percent of cervical cancer hysterectomies are performed minimally invasively
  • In 2018, around 13,240 women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer in the U.S.
CHICAGO --- Minimally invasive hysterectomy, a popular procedure for early-stage cervical cancer, turns out to result in worse overall survival for cancer patients than traditional open surgery, reports a new national study from Northwestern Medicine and other institutions.

Among women undergoing minimally invasive surgery, the risk of death within four years was 9.1 percent as compared to 5.3 percent in the open surgery group, a 3.8 percent difference. This equates to patients being about 1.65 times more likely to die over this time frame than if they received open surgery.

"At this point, we would recommend only using open surgery to perform a radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer," said co-senior author Dr. Shohreh Shahabi, chief of gynecologic oncology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and a Northwestern Medicine physician.

The study will be published in the New England Journal of Medicine Oct. 31.

The results of a prospective, randomized clinical trial published in the same issue of the New England Journal of Medicine also supports only using open surgery going forward, added Shahabi. She is the John and Ruth Brewer Professor of Gynecology and Cancer Research and a member of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University.

"Although based on our analyses we cannot explain why minimally invasive surgery is associated with inferior overall survival, possible explanations include the potentially limited extent of tumor removal during minimally invasive surgery, or that tools used during minimally invasive hysterectomy may inadvertently disseminate tumor cells," Shahabi said.

"It is important to note these results are specific to cervical cancer, and minimally invasive surgery is still a great option for other surgeries and cancers," Shahabi noted.

This study was a retrospective study that looked at patients in the National Cancer Database from 2010 to 2013. This database includes 70 percent of all new cancer diagnoses in the United States. The study authors identified 2,461 patients with stage IA2 or IB1 cervical cancer who were treated with a radical hysterectomy. About half of these women had open surgery and half had minimally invasive surgery. They also used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database to look at trends in survival prior to and after the adoption of the minimally invasive approach to radical hysterectomy.

In 2018, around 13,240 women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer in the United States, noted co-lead author Dr. Daniel Magul, who worked on the study in Shahabi's lab as a student at Feinberg and now is a resident physician at University Hospital in Cincinnati.

Minimally invasive radical hysterectomy first started to become popular around 2006. Over course of the study -- from 2010 to 2013 -- minimally invasive radical hysterectomies became progressively more common. In 2010, just more than a third of radical hysterectomies were performed with minimally invasive surgery, but by 2013, nearly 60 percent were performed minimally invasively.

Open surgery is performed with a large laparotomy incision in the middle of the abdomen. Recovery from this surgery generally requires several days in the hospital. Minimally invasive surgery is performed by inflating the abdomen with gas and operating through very small incisions using a camera and long instruments or a robot. The recovery time for minimally invasive surgery is much shorter, and patients can usually go home either the same day or day after their procedure.
Other institutions participating in the study include Harvard Medical School, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health and the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center at Columbia University.

Other Northwestern authors on the study include Dr. Masha Kocherginsky, co-senior author, Dr. Emma Barber and Dr. Amy Alexander.

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