JCI online early table of contents: Nov. 3, 2008

November 03, 2008

METABOLISM: Keeping food consumption under control, a new role for the protein PrP

Tatsushi Onaka and colleagues, at Jichi Medical University, Japan, have provided new insight into the network of signals that emanate from the gut and the brainstem of rodents to regulate food intake.

In the study, neurons in the region of the rat brainstem known as the nucleus tractus solitarii that express the protein prolactin-releasing peptide (PrP) were found to be activated following food intake. Consistent with PrP functioning as a satiety signal (a signal that suppresses food intake), mice lacking PrP became obese in adulthood as a result of increased food intake and decreased responsiveness to other satiety signals. Similarly, obesity as a result of increased food intake was observed in rats in which an antibody that blocks PrP was administered directly into the brain. In both cases the increased food intake was reflected by an increase in meal size. Thus, PrRP acts as a satiety signal in the brain of rodents, and disruption of this important signal can cause obesity.

TITLE: Endogenous prolactin-releasing peptide regulates food intake in rodents

Tatsushi Onaka
Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan.
Phone: 81-285-58-7318; Fax: 81-285-44-8147; E-mail: tonaka@jichi.ac.jp.

View the PDF of this article at: https://www.the-jci.org/article.php?id=34682

CARDIOLOGY: The protein FHL1 helps heart muscle cells respond to high pressure

High blood pressure puts stress on the heart, which responds by increasing in size, a process known as cardiac hypertrophy. This is a leading cause of heart failure and understanding the molecular pathways involved is important for identifying potential therapeutic targets. New data, generated in mice by Ju Chen and colleagues, at the University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, have now identified the protein FHL1 as part of the complex in heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) that senses the high pressure-induced stress that triggers cardiac hypertrophy. Specifically, cardiac hypertrophy triggered by experimentally induced high blood pressure was markedly diminished in mice lacking FHL1. Further analysis shed light on other important molecules and signaling pathways involved in the process of sensing high pressure-induced cardiac stress, leading the authors to suggest that further analysis of these might reveal a new target for drugs to treat heart disease characterized by cardiac hypertrophy.

TITLE: An FHL1-containing complex within the cardiomyocyte sarcomere mediates hypertrophic biomechanical stress responses in mice

Ju Chen
University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
Phone: (858) 822-4276; Fax: (858) 822-1355; E-mail: juchen@ucsd.edu.

View the PDF of this article at: https://www.the-jci.org/article.php?id=34472

VASCULAR BIOLOGY: A new regulator of blood vessel formation: the protein AIP1

AIP1 is a recently identified protein known to be highly expressed in the cells that line blood vessels (endothelial cells) and to regulate the death (by a process known as apoptosis) of these cells in vitro . However, the in vivo function of AIP1 in endothelial cells has not been determined. But now, Wang Min, Hong Chen, and colleagues, at Yale University Medical School, New Haven, have generated mice lacking AIP1 and found that AIP1 regulates new blood vessel formation (angiogenesis) under inflammatory conditions.

In the study, AIP1-deficient mice exhibited markedly enhanced angiogenesis in two models of inflammatory angiogenesis. In one model this was associated with increased VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling. Further analysis determined the mechanism by which AIP1 regulates angiogenesis under inflammatory conditions: AIP1 is recruited to VEGFR2 signaling complexes formed after VEGF binds VEGFR2 and that AIP1 inhibits VEGFR2 signaling, leading to decreased endothelial cell migration and therefore decreased angiogenesis.

TITLE: AIP1 functions as an endogenous inhibitor of VEGFR2-mediated signaling and inflammatory angiogenesis in mice

Wang Min
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Phone: (203) 785-6047; Fax: (203) 737-2293; E-mail: wang.min@yale.edu.

Hong Chen
Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.
Phone: (405) 271-2750; Fax: (405) 271-3137; E-mail: hong-chen@omrf.org.

View the PDF of this article at: https://www.the-jci.org/article.php?id=36168

JCI Journals

Related Endothelial Cells Articles from Brightsurf:

JACC: BTS study looks at COVID-19's impact on cardiovascular tissue, endothelial cells
In the paper, ''Cardiorenal tissues express SARS-CoV-2 entry genes and basigin (BSG/CD147) increases with age in endothelial cells,'' publishing in JACC: Basic to Translational Research, researchers used publicly available gene expression data to determine the relative expression of key SARS-CoV-2 host entry/ processing genes in human cardiorenal tissues, including aorta, coronary artery, heart (atria and left ventricle), whole blood and the kidney and for comparison the colon, spleen and lung.

New way to target some rapidly dividing cancer cells, leaving healthy cells unharmed
Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine and the University of Oxford say they have found a new way to kill some multiplying human breast cancer cells by selectively attacking the core of their cell division machinery.

Nutrient deficiency in tumor cells attracts cells that suppress the immune system
A study led by IDIBELL researchers and published this week in the American journal PNAS shows that, by depriving tumor cells of glucose, they release a large number of signaling molecules.

Scientists modify CAR-T cells to target multiple sites on leukemia cells
In a preclinical study, scientists engineer new CAR-T cells to attack three sites on leukemia cells, instead of one.

Sphingotec's endothelial function biomarker bio-ADM® improves risk stratification of sepsis patients at ICUs
New study data show that monitoring blood levels of sphingotec's endothelial function biomarker bio-ADMĀ® on top of guideline parameter lactate improves risk stratification of sepsis patients admitted to intensive care units.

sphingotec's endothelial function biomarker bio-ADM® predicts need for organ support in general ICU patient population
Data from more than 2,000 patients enrolled in the FROG-ICU study demonstrate that high levels of bioactive adrenomedullin (bio-ADMĀ®) predict the need for organ support, ionotropes, and vasopressors in the general patient population at admission to the intensive care unit (ICU).

First-of-its-kind study in endothelial stem cells finds exposure to flavored e-cigarette liquids, e-cigarette use exacerbates cell dysfunction
There has been a rapid rise in e-cigarette use, but its health effects have not been well-studied and their effect on vascular health remains unknown.

Dead cells disrupt how immune cells respond to wounds and patrol for infection
Immune cells prioritise the clearance of dead cells overriding their normal migration to sites of injury.

Transplanted bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells delay ALS disease progression
Transplanting human bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells into mice mimicking symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) helped more motor neurons survive and slowed disease progression by repairing damage to the blood-spinal cord barrier, University of South Florida researchers report.

Revealed: How the 'Iron Man' of immune cells helps T cells fight infection
The immune system's killer T cells are crucial in fighting viral infections.

Read More: Endothelial Cells News and Endothelial Cells Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.