Nav: Home

For smokers with HIV, smoking may now be more harmful than HIV itself

November 03, 2016

Among people living with HIV who smoke cigarettes, smoking may now shorten their lifespan more than HIV itself, according to a new modeling study published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases. With smoking rates more than twice as high among people with HIV as in the general U.S. adult population, the study suggests that making smoking cessation a priority and finding effective ways to help people with HIV quit can significantly improve their lifespan.

"Now that HIV-specific medicines are so effective against the virus itself, we also need to add other interventions that could improve and extend the lives of people with HIV," said study author Krishna P. Reddy, MD, of Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Smoking is especially dangerous for people living with HIV, putting them at high risk for heart disease, cancer, serious lung diseases, and other infections.

In their study, the researchers used a computer simulation of HIV disease and treatment to project the life expectancy of people living with HIV based on their smoking status. For men and women with HIV who adhere well to HIV medicines, the study found that smoking reduces life expectancy by about twice as much as HIV. Unlike earlier studies in Europe, the new study also accounts for higher rates of non-adherence to HIV drug regimens and lower retention in care in the U.S., making the latest findings especially relevant for health care providers and patients in this country. Even when accounting for typical rates of treatment non-adherence and missed follow-up care in the U.S., the study found that for men with HIV, the life expectancy loss associated with smoking was similar to that from HIV.

"It is well-known that smoking is bad for health, but we demonstrate in this study just how bad it is," Dr. Reddy said. "We actually quantify the risk, and I think providing those numbers to patients can help put their own risks from smoking in perspective. A person with HIV who consistently takes HIV medicines but smokes is much more likely to die of a smoking-related disease than of HIV itself."

For example, men and women entering care for HIV at age 40 who continued to smoke lost 6.7 and 6.3 years of life expectancy, respectively, compared with people with HIV who never smoked, according to the modeling study. If they quit smoking at age 40, they regained 5.7 and 4.6 years of life expectancy, respectively. "We show that even people who have been smoking till age 60 but quit at age 60 have a substantial increase in their life expectancy compared to those who continue to smoke," Dr. Reddy said. "So it's never too late to quit."

The findings suggest that smoking cessation should be a major focus of health providers who care for people living with HIV and incorporated into existing care programs and treatment guidelines, the study authors concluded. Additional research is needed to identify what strategies work best to help patients with HIV quit. Future cost-effectiveness studies might also estimate the potentially significant health and economic benefits of investments in smoking cessation in this population, Dr. Reddy said.

In an accompanying editorial commentary, Keri N. Althoff, PhD, of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, noted that the new findings answer important questions about the years of life potentially gained by people living with HIV in the U.S. who quit smoking. "This study makes clear that we must prioritize smoking cessation among adults with HIV if we want them to have an increase in the quantity (and likely quality) of life," wrote Dr. Althoff, who was not involved in the study.
-end-
Fast Facts
  • Researchers projected the life expectancy of people living with HIV in the U.S. based on smoking status and age. They found that smoking may now shorten lifespan more than HIV itself among people with HIV who are in care.

  • The findings suggest that promoting smoking cessation should be a priority among providers who care for patients with HIV and incorporated into existing care programs and treatment guidelines for this population.

  • More than 40 percent of people living with HIV in the U.S. smoke, previous research has found. In the general population, about 15 percent of adults are smokers, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

  • More information about smoking and HIV, including tips on how to quit, is available from CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/campaign/tips/diseases/smoking-and-hiv.html

Editor's Note: The study was funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and Massachusetts General Hospital. The study authors' and editorial commentary author's affiliations, acknowledgments, and disclosures of financial support and potential conflicts of interests, if any, are available in the study and the commentary, which are embargoed until 12:05 a.m. EDT on Thursday, Nov. 3. For an embargoed copy of the study and the commentary, please contact Jeremy Andereck (312-558-1770, jandereck@pcipr.com). Published continuously since 1904, The Journal of Infectious Diseases is the premier global journal for original research on infectious diseases. The editors welcome major articles and brief reports describing research results on microbiology, immunology, epidemiology, and related disciplines, on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases; on the microbes that cause them; and on disorders of host immune responses. The journal is an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Based in Arlington, Va., IDSA is a professional society representing nearly 10,000 physicians and scientists who specialize in infectious diseases. For more information, visit http://www.idsociety.org. Follow IDSA on Facebook and Twitter.

Infectious Diseases Society of America

Related Smoking Articles:

A case where smoking helped
A mutation in the hemoglobin of a young woman in Germany was found to cause her mild anemia.
No safe level of smoking
People who consistently smoked an average of less than one cigarette per day over their lifetime had a 64 percent higher risk of earlier death than people who never smoked.
Nearly half of women who stop smoking during pregnancy go back to smoking soon after baby is born
A major new review published today by the scientific journal Addiction reveals that in studies testing the effectiveness of stop-smoking support for pregnant women, nearly half (43 percent) of the women who managed to stay off cigarettes during the pregnancy went back to smoking within six months of the birth.
If you want to quit smoking, do it now
Smokers who try to cut down the amount they smoke before stopping are less likely to quit than those who choose to quit all in one go, Oxford University researchers have found.
Cochrane news: Have national smoking bans worked in reducing harms in passive smoking?
The most robust evidence yet, published today in the Cochrane Library, suggests that national smoking legislation does reduce the harms of passive smoking, and particularly risks from heart disease.
Advocating for raising the smoking age to 21
Henry Ford Hospital pulmonologist Daniel Ouellette, M.D., who during his 31-year career in medicine has seen the harmful effects of smoking on his patients, advocates for raising the smoking age to 21.
Stress main cause of smoking after childbirth
Mothers who quit smoking in pregnancy are more likely to light up again after their baby is born if they feel stressed.
As smoking declines, more are likely to quit
Smokeless tobacco and, more recently, e-cigarettes have been promoted as a harm reduction strategy for smokers who are 'unable or unwilling to quit.' The strategy, embraced by both industry and some public health advocates, is based on the assumption that as smoking declines overall, only those who cannot quit will remain.
Smoking around your toddler could be just as bad as smoking while pregnant
Children whose parents smoked when they were toddlers are likely to have a wider waist and a higher BMI by time they reach ten years of age, reveal researchers at the University of Montreal and its affiliated CHU Sainte Justine Research Centre.
Smoking and angioplasty: Not a good combination
Quitting smoking when you have angioplasty is associated with better quality of life and less chest pain.

Related Smoking Reading:

Smoking Meat: The Essential Guide to Real Barbecue
by Jeff Phillips (Author)

The ultimate how-to guide for smoking all kinds of meat, poultry and fish.

From the creator of the world's highest-ranking website on smoking meat, comes this guide to mastering the 'low and slow' art of smoking meat, poultry and fish at home. Smoking Meat takes home smokers new and experienced step by step through the basic and finer points of 'smokeology' -- how to choose a smoker among the various models available, how to set up and modify a smoker (whether charcoal, gas or electric), which wood to use, how to build and maintain a fire, what tools, equipment and... View Details


Franklin Barbecue: A Meat-Smoking Manifesto
by Aaron Franklin (Author), Jordan Mackay (Author)

A complete meat and brisket-cooking education from the country's most celebrated pitmaster and owner of the wildly popular Austin restaurant Franklin Barbecue.

When Aaron Franklin and his wife, Stacy, opened up a small barbecue trailer on the side of an Austin, Texas, interstate in 2009, they had no idea what they’d gotten themselves into. Today, Franklin Barbecue has grown into the most popular, critically lauded, and obsessed-over barbecue joint in the country (if not the world)—and Franklin is the winner of every major barbecue award there is.
 
In this... View Details


Allen Carr's Easy Way To Stop Smoking
by Allen Carr (Author)

Allen Carr's Easy Way to Stop Smoking is a self-help classic, with over 20m copies sold worldwide. It has been a #1 bestseller in nine European countries. It outsells all other quit smoking titles combined. This edition has been developed specifically for smokers in the US.

This seminal book has enabled millions of smokers to quit easily and enjoyably using Carr's simple, drug-free approach.

(Allen Carr) View Details


Smokin' with Myron Mixon: Recipes Made Simple, from the Winningest Man in Barbecue
by Myron Mixon (Author), Kelly Alexander (Author)

The perfect gift for Father’s Day! The winningest man in barbecause shares the secrets of his success. Rule number one? Keep it simple.
 
In the world of competitive barbecue, nobody’s won more prize money, more trophies, or more adulation than Myron Mixon. And he comes by it honestly: From the time he was old enough to stoke a pit, Mixon learned the art of barbecue at his father’s side. He grew up to expand his parent’s sauce business, Jack’s Old South, and in the process became the leader of the winningest team in competitive barbecue. It’s Mixon’s... View Details


Secrets to Smoking on the Weber Smokey Mountain Cooker and Other Smokers: An Independent Guide with Master Recipes from a BBQ Champion
by Bill Gillespie (Author)

Learn To Make Delicious, Next-Level Barbecue From a Smoking Pro

Use your WSM and other smokers to take your barbecue to the next level. This book includes incredible recipes combined with all the secrets to making great-tasting, succulent and perfectly cooked barbecue every time. Keep an eye out for the pulled pork recipe that won "the Jack," and the brisket recipe that got a perfect score at the American Royal Barbecue Invitational Contest.

Bill Gillespie, regular guy turned barbecue champion, whose team recently won Grand Champion of the American... View Details


Project Smoke
by Steven Raichlen (Author)

From America’s “master griller” (Esquire), a step-by-step guide to cold-smoking, hot-smoking, and smoke-roasting, and a collection of 100 innovative recipes for smoking every kind of food, from starters to desserts.

Smoke is the soul of barbecue, the alchemy that happens when burning wood infuses its magical flavors into food. Project Smoke tells you how to make the alchemy happen, with Raichlen’s seven steps to smoking nirvana; an in-depth description of the various smokers; the essential brines, rubs, marinades, and barbecue sauces; and a complete guide to... View Details


The Illustrated Easy Way to Stop Smoking (Allen Carr's Easyway)
by Allen Carr (Author), Bev Aisbett (Illustrator)

READ THIS BOOK, FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS AND STOP SMOKING NOW.

In The illustrated easy way to stop smoking, Allen Carr debunks the myths about smoking and shows you the way to beat your addiction. With the brilliant illustrations of Bev Aisbett, Carr's globally best-selling method is presented here in a truly refreshing, accessible, dynamic, funny and enjoyable way.

Allen Carr has helped cure millions of smokers worldwide and he can do the same for you.

His books have sold over 15 million copies worldwide, and read by an estimated 40 million people,... View Details


Smoking Meat: Tools - Techniques - Cuts - Recipes; Perfect the Art of Cooking with Smoke
by Will Fleischman (Author)

Smoking Meat is a comprehensive introduction to the art of smoking. 50 recipes provide expert guidance on smoking all types of meat, from beef and poultry to pork, game, and seafood, and eye-popping photography offers the culinary inspiration you need to create the perfect sauce, mop, or rub for your preferred cut.

More than just a book of recipes, Smoking Meat teaches you the fundamentals of successful smoking, including how to choose a smoker, how to "tune" a fire for optimum temperature control, and how to choose the right wood for the right meat. Expert advice... View Details


Allen Carr's Easy Way to Stop Smoking: Revised Edition
by Allen Carr (Author)

Allen Carr's Easy Way to Stop Smoking is the one that really works. It is the world's bestselling book on how to give up smoking and over nine million copies have been sold worldwide. 2015 marks the 30th anniversary since this ground-breaking book's first publication. 'It didn't take any willpower. I didn't miss it at all and I was free' Ruby Wax Read this book and you'll never smoke another cigarette again. THE unique method: No scare tactics No weight-gain The psychological need to smoke disappears as you read Feel great to be a non-smoker Join the 25 million men and women that Allen Carr... View Details


Smoking Fish: Irresistible Recipes for Smoked Fish (Tuna, Trout, Salmon and Other Fish)
by Rachel Mills (Author)

            Irresistible Recipes for Smoked Fish
            Tuna, Trout, Salmon and Other Fish


Smoking fish or grilling it is not only a means of cooking but this is a form of Art or a form of Lifestyle! Smoking is something has withstood the test of time, it will continue to stand the test of time for years to come. Not only is it a method to preserve your catch or kill, but it’s also one of if not the best-tasting food there is. This is an ultimate how-to guide for smoking all types of fish. This book on smoking fish for beginners is... View Details

Best Science Podcasts 2018

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2018. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Attention Please
In an age of constant information and infinite distractions, how can we pay more attention to our ... attention? This hour, TED speakers explore the battle for our awareness during the digital age. Guests include sociologist Zeynep Tufekci, podcast host Manoush Zomorodi, neuroscientist Amishi Jha, designer Tristan Harris, and computer scientist Jaron Lanier.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#475 Mother Nature is Trying to Kill You (Rebroadcast)
This week, we're learning how deadly and delightful our planet and its ecosystem can be. We're joined by biologist Dan Riskin, co-host of Discovery Canada's Daily Planet, to talk about his book "Mother Nature Is Trying to Kill You: a Lively Tour Through the Dark Side of the Natural World." And we'll talk to astronomer and author Phil Plait about Science Getaways, his company that offers educational vacation experiences for science lovers.