Scratching the surface of mature monocytes...and coming up with CXCR7

November 03, 2017

New research published online in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology showed for the first time that mature monocytes (a specific type of white blood cell) express the CXCR7 receptor on their surface. This receptor may be a therapeutic target for controlling inflammation in the brain associated with diseases like multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's and AIDS.

"Since mature monocytes appear to be the only white blood cells that primarily use CXCR7 to respond to the CXCL12 brain stimulus, we may have hit upon a novel method to block inflammation and HIV infection in the brain," said Mike Veenstra, a researcher involved in the work from the Departments of Pathology, and Microbiology and Immunology, at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in Bronx, New York. "We hope our findings spur further research and development of targets against the receptor so that novel treatment for NeuroAIDS and other diseases can become readily available."

To conduct the experiment, Berman and colleagues obtained cells from the peripheral blood of HIV-negative and HIV-infected individuals. Within these cells, the researchers examined the surface receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 that were expressed on mature monocytes. They then performed blocking studies with pharmacological agents against each of the receptors using a tissue culture model of the human blood brain barrier to determine which of the surface receptors was used to enter the brain.

"Migration of blood monocytes to the brain can be involved in many diseases, including autoimmunity and spread of infections like HIV to the brain," said John Wherry, Ph.D., Deputy Editor of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology. "These new findings might provide a novel approach to prevent these 'Trojan horses' in the cases of HIV from transporting their payload to the brain."
-end-
The Journal of Leukocyte Biology publishes peer-reviewed manuscripts on original investigations focusing on the cellular and molecular biology of leukocytes and on the origins, the developmental biology, biochemistry and functions of granulocytes, lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes and other cells involved in host defense and inflammation. The Journal of Leukocyte Biology is published by the Society for Leukocyte Biology.

Details: Mike Veenstra, Dionna W. Williams, Tina M. Calderon, Kathryn Anastos, Susan Morgello, and Joan W. Berman. Frontline Science: CXCR7 mediates CD14+CD16+ monocyte transmigration across the blood brain barrier: a potential therapeutic target for NeuroAIDS. J Leukoc Biol November 2017 102:1173-1185; doi:10.1189/jlb.3HI0517-167R ; early online: July 28, 2017, final version: Nov. 1, 2017 ; http://www.jleukbio.org/content/102/5/1173.abstract

Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

Related HIV Articles from Brightsurf:

BEAT-HIV Delaney collaboratory issues recommendations measuring persistent HIV reservoirs
Spearheaded by Wistar scientists, top worldwide HIV researchers from the BEAT-HIV Martin Delaney Collaboratory to Cure HIV-1 Infection by Combination Immunotherapy (BEAT-HIV Collaboratory) compiled the first comprehensive set of recommendations on how to best measure the size of persistent HIV reservoirs during cure-directed clinical studies.

The Lancet HIV: Study suggests a second patient has been cured of HIV
A study of the second HIV patient to undergo successful stem cell transplantation from donors with a HIV-resistant gene, finds that there was no active viral infection in the patient's blood 30 months after they stopped anti-retroviral therapy, according to a case report published in The Lancet HIV journal and presented at CROI (Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections).

Children with HIV score below HIV-negative peers in cognitive, motor function tests
Children who acquired HIV in utero or during birth or breastfeeding did not perform as well as their peers who do not have HIV on tests measuring cognitive ability, motor function and attention, according to a report published online today in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Efforts to end the HIV epidemic must not ignore people already living with HIV
Efforts to prevent new HIV transmissions in the US must be accompanied by addressing HIV-associated comorbidities to improve the health of people already living with HIV, NIH experts assert in the third of a series of JAMA commentaries.

The Lancet HIV: Severe anti-LGBT legislations associated with lower testing and awareness of HIV in African countries
This first systematic review to investigate HIV testing, treatment and viral suppression in men who have sex with men in Africa finds that among the most recent studies (conducted after 2011) only half of men have been tested for HIV in the past 12 months.

The Lancet HIV: Tenfold increase in number of adolescents on HIV treatment in South Africa since 2010, but many still untreated
A new study of more than 700,000 one to 19-year olds being treated for HIV infection suggests a ten-fold increase in the number of adolescents aged 15 to 19 receiving HIV treatment in South Africa, according to results published in The Lancet HIV journal.

Starting HIV treatment in ERs may be key to ending HIV spread worldwide
In a follow-up study conducted in South Africa, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have evidence that hospital emergency departments (EDs) worldwide may be key strategic settings for curbing the spread of HIV infections in hard-to-reach populations if the EDs jump-start treatment and case management as well as diagnosis of the disease.

NIH HIV experts prioritize research to achieve sustained ART-free HIV remission
Achieving sustained remission of HIV without life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a top HIV research priority, according to a new commentary in JAMA by experts at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

The Lancet HIV: PrEP implementation is associated with a rapid decline in new HIV infections
Study from Australia is the first to evaluate a population-level roll-out of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in men who have sex with men.

Researchers date 'hibernating' HIV strains, advancing BC's leadership in HIV cure research
Researchers have developed a novel way for dating 'hibernating' HIV strains, in an advancement for HIV cure research.

Read More: HIV News and HIV Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.