Nav: Home

Soft magnetic material characterizations get a harder look

November 14, 2017

WASHINGTON, D.C., November 14, 2017 -- In motors, generators and similar electric machines, the electrical current that powers them generates magnetic fields that magnetize some of the metallic components.

Choosing the right magnetic material is crucial for designing efficient machines, so researchers from the Institute of Electrical Machines (IEM) at RWTH Aachen University in Germany analyzed the existing system for characterizing soft magnetic materials, which are easily magnetized. To identify a better system for quality control, they looked at several factors that can affect the uncertainty inherent in the measurement of magnetic properties. Their results are published this week in the AIP Advances, from AIP Publishing.

One example of a soft magnetic material manufacturers use to make generators, electric motors and transformers is low carbon steel. Generally, these materials serve the purpose of guiding and amplifying the magnetic flux when converting between mechanical and electrical energy in these machines. Magnetic measurements allow manufacturers to characterize those materials and to calculate how much power will be lost due to the magnetization process.

"Manufacturing processes such as the cutting of the steel lamination influence the behavior of the soft magnetic material," said Silas Elfgen of RWTH Aachen University. "Therefore such influence has to be measured and we must be able to model such parasitic effects."

Standardized methods for evaluating magnetic properties exist, but the researchers found them to be inadequate for applications such as designing traction drives in vehicles. They used one of the standard testing instruments, called a single sheet tester, to characterize soft magnetic materials across a range of frequencies and magnetic flux densities.

Their tests showed that the currently used parameters describing measurement qualities are not sufficient for accurately evaluating uncertainties that arise at frequencies and magnetization levels of some applications currently of interest. They also looked at additional factors that influence the characterization and measured how much each parameter contributes to the uncertainty. They propose that these uncertainties can guide the selection of the most appropriate soft magnetic material for a specific electrical machine.

"These analyses can be used by everyone working with magnetic characteristics and magnetic model parameters," Elfgen said. "Further, it can be used in quality assurance of a product to define production features."
The article, "Characterisation of soft magnetic materials by measurement: Evaluation of uncertainties up to 1.8 T and 9 kHz," is authored by Silas Elfgen, David Franck and Kay Hameyer. The article will appear in AIP Advances Nov. 14, 2017 (DOI: 10.1063/1.4993294). After that date, it can be accessed at


AIP Advances is a fully open access, online-only, peer-reviewed journal. It covers all areas of applied physical sciences. With its advanced web 2.0 functionality, the journal puts relevant content and discussion tools in the hands of the community to shape the direction of the physical sciences. See

American Institute of Physics

Related Magnetic Properties Articles:

Microdevice provides novel method of measuring cell mechanical properties
Researchers from Kumamoto University in Japan have developed a new method of measuring the Young's modulus of a cell.
Gray tin exhibits novel topological electronic properties in 3-D
In a surprising new discovery, alpha-tin, commonly called gray tin, exhibits a novel electronic phase when its crystal structure is strained, putting it in a rare new class of 3-D materials called topological Dirac semimetals (TDSs).
Organic-inorganic heterostructures with programmable electronic properties
Researchers from the University of Strasbourg & CNRS (France), in collaboration with the University of Mons (Belgium), the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (Germany) and the Technische Universität Dresden (Germany), have devised a novel supramolecular strategy to introduce tunable 1D periodic potentials upon self-assembly of ad hoc organic building blocks on graphene, opening the way to the realization of hybrid organic-inorganic multilayer materials with unique electronic and optical properties.
Stabilizing soils with sulfates to improve their constructional properties
Stabilization by means of conventional additives cannot be carried out on soils with sulfates because the calcium in these additives adversely reacts with the sulfate present in the soil.
Do cells have exotic vibrational properties?
A little-understood biological property that appears to allow cell components to store energy on their outer edges is the possible key to developing a new class of materials and devices to collect, store and manage energy for a variety of applications, a team of researchers at New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) and Yeshiva University has proposed.
Nano 'sandwich' offers unique properties
Nanoclusters of magnesium oxide sandwiched between layers of graphene make a compound with unique electronic and optical properties, according to researchers at Rice University who built computer simulations of the material.
A new platform to study graphene's electronic properties
IBS scientists model the electronic structure of graphene.
Anticancer properties of mono/di-halogenated coumarins
In the present investigation, mono/di-halogenated coumarins CMRN1-CMRN7 have been synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity.
Germanium's semiconducting and optical properties probed under pressure
Germanium may not be a household name like silicon, its group-mate on the periodic table, but it has great potential for use in next-generation electronics and energy technology.
Creating new physical properties in materials
A collaborative effort between research groups at the Technical University of Freiberg and the University of Siegen in Germany demonstrates that the physical properties of SrTiO3, or strontium titanate, in its single crystal form can be changed by a relatively simple electrical treatment.

Related Magnetic Properties Reading:

Handbook of Crystal Structures and Magnetic Properties of Rare Earth Intermetallics
by Andrej Szytula (Author), Janusz Leciejewicz (Author)

Rare-earth intermetallics, also known as lanthanide elements, play an important role in the study of magnetic materials and the development of semi- and super-conducting materials. This handbook provides an up-to-date compilation of crystallographic, physical, and magnetic data on rare-earth intermetallic compounds. Over 20 different structure types are described in detail with an emphasis on how crystal structure can affect magnetic properties. Theoretical models for magnetic interactions are described as well as the impact of crystal electric fields on transport properties, magneto... View Details

Understanding Materials Science: History, Properties, Applications, Second Edition
by Rolf E. Hummel (Author)

 This introduction for engineers examines not only the physical properties of materials, but also their history, uses, development, and some of the implications of resource depletion and materials substitutions.

View Details

Electronic, Magnetic, and Optical Materials, Second Edition (Advanced Materials and Technologies)
by Pradeep Fulay (Author), Jung-Kun Lee (Author)

This book integrates materials science with other engineering subjects such as physics, chemistry and electrical engineering. The authors discuss devices and technologies used by the electronics, magnetics and photonics industries and offer a perspective on the manufacturing technologies used in device fabrication. The new addition includes chapters on optical properties and devices and addresses nanoscale phenomena and nanoscience, a subject that has made significant progress in the past decade regarding the fabrication of various materials and devices with nanometer-scale features.

View Details

Thermal, Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Alloys
by Alpheus W. Smith (Author)

Leopold is delighted to publish this classic book as part of our extensive Classic Library collection. Many of the books in our collection have been out of print for decades, and therefore have not been accessible to the general public. The aim of our publishing program is to facilitate rapid access to this vast reservoir of literature, and our view is that this is a significant literary work, which deserves to be brought back into print after many decades. The contents of the vast majority of titles in the Classic Library have been scanned from the original works. To ensure a high quality... View Details

Magnetism in Condensed Matter (Oxford Master Series in Physics)
by Stephen Blundell (Author)

The superb book describes the modern theory of the magnetic properties of solids. Starting from fundamental principles, this copiously illustrated volume outlines the theory of magnetic behaviour, describes experimental techniques, and discusses current research topics. The book is intended for final year undergraduate students and graduate students in the physical sciences. To request a copy of the Solutions Manual, visit:
View Details

Quantum Theory of Magnetism
by Robert M. White (Author)

"Quantum Theory of Magnetism" is the only book that deals with the phenomenon of magnetism from the point of view of "linear response". That is, how does a magnetic material respond when excited by a magnetic field? That field may be uniform, or spatially varying, static or time dependent. Previous editions have dealt primarily with the magnetic response. This edition incorporates the resistive response of magnetic materials as well. It also includes problems to test the reader's (or student's) comprehension. The rationale for a book on magnetism is as valid today as it was when the first two... View Details

Solid State Properties: From Bulk to Nano (Graduate Texts in Physics)
by Mildred Dresselhaus (Author), Gene Dresselhaus (Author), Stephen B. Cronin (Author), Antonio Gomes Souza Filho (Author)

This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials sciencebooks that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electricalengineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementaryundergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on asuccessful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) ElectronicStructure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explainedin the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials... View Details

Electrical and magnetic properties of metals
by James K Stanley (Author)

View Details

Electro-Magnetic Tissue Properties MRI (Modelling and Simulation in Medical Imaging)
by Jin Keun Seo (Author), Eung Je Woo (Author), Ulrich Katscher (Author), Yi Wang (Author)

This is the first book that presents a comprehensive introduction to and overview of electro-magnetic tissue property imaging techniques using MRI, focusing on Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT), Electrical Properties Tomography (EPT) and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM). The contrast information from these novel imaging modalities is unique since there is currently no other method to reconstruct high-resolution images of the electro-magnetic tissue properties including electrical conductivity, permittivity, and magnetic susceptibility. These three imaging... View Details

Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers Sixteenth Edition
by H. Wayne Beaty (Author), Donald G. Fink (Author)


For more than a century, the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers has served as the definitive source for all the pertinent electrical engineering data essential to both engineering students and practicing engineers. It offers comprehensive information on the generation, transmission, distribution, control, operation, and application of electric power.

Completely revised throughout to address the latest codes and standards, the 16th Edition of this renowned reference offers new coverage of green technologies... View Details

Best Science Podcasts 2018

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2018. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

The Consequences Of Racism
What does it mean to be judged before you walk through the door? What are the consequences? This week, TED speakers delve into the ways racism impacts our lives, from education, to health, to safety. Guests include poet and writer Clint Smith, writer and activist Miriam Zoila Pérez, educator Dena Simmons, and former prosecutor Adam Foss.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#465 How The Nose Knows
We've all got a nose but how does it work? Why do we like some smells and not others, and why can we all agree that some smells are good and some smells are bad, while others are dependant on personal or cultural preferences? We speak with Asifa Majid, Professor of Language, Communication and Cultural Cognition at Radboud University, about the intersection of culture, language, and smell. And we level up on our olfactory neuroscience with University of Pennsylvania Professor Jay Gottfried.