Jackdaw mobs flip from chaos to order as they grow

November 15, 2019

Chaotic mobs of jackdaws suddenly get organised once enough birds join in, new research shows.

The birds form mobs to drive away predators near their nests, and are initially disordered.

But the new study, by biologists at the University of Exeter, physicists at Stanford University and computer scientists from Simon Fraser University in Canada, shows a dramatic switch to "ordered motion" once the group reaches a certain density.

The study also reveals that jackdaws follow different rules when mobbing predators than when flying to winter roosts.

"Traditionally, it is thought that flocking - and other collective behaviour like swarms, fish schools and human crowds - occurs when each individual follows an identical set of rules to every other in the group," said Dr Alex Thornton, of the Centre for Ecology and Conservation on Exeter's Penryn Campus in Cornwall.

"This study shows that these rules are actually flexible.

"When flying to their winter roosts, jackdaws follow what we call 'topological rules' - meaning that they respond to the movements of a fixed number of neighbours, and groups remain ordered regardless of how many birds are flying together.

"When mobbing a predator, however, the jackdaws instead use 'metric rules' where they respond to all the neighbours that are within a given distance. Here, we see order emerging from chaos.

"Jackdaws issue an alarm call to draw other birds to the mob, and at first these groups are completely disordered.

"Then, when the density of birds reaches a certain threshold, it suddenly flips into an ordered, cohesive state where the birds are aligned with their neighbours and move together in an organised way.

"This sudden transition from disorder to order is similar to the phase transitions we see in physics, like when water turns to ice."

This finding that rules of collective behaviour can change in different contexts could have implications for the design of autonomous vehicles, Dr Thornton said.

"Swarms of unmanned aerial vehicles or drones have potential uses in many applications including ecological surveys, fire-fighting and search-and-rescue in remote regions," he said.

"By learning from the behaviour of jackdaws, we can begin to design drones that modify their swarming behaviour to maximise their efficiency in different contexts."

The study used high-speed cameras to film flocks of wild jackdaws at sites in Cornwall, UK, to create 3D reconstructions of the movements of each bird in the flock.
The authors included Joe Westley, an Exeter undergraduate on the university's Access to Internships Scheme, and the project was funded by the Human Frontier Science Program.

The paper, published in Nature Communications, is entitled: "Behavioural plasticity and the transition to order in jackdaw flocks."

University of Exeter

Related Birds Articles from Brightsurf:

In a warming climate, can birds take the heat?
We don't know precisely how hot things will get as climate change marches on, but animals in the tropics may not fare as well as their temperate relatives.

Dull-colored birds don't see the world like colorful birds do
Bengalese finches -- also called the Society finch -- are a species of brown, black and white birds that don't rely on colorful signals when choosing a mate.

Some dinosaurs could fly before they were birds
New research using the most comprehensive study of feathered dinosaurs and early birds has revised the evolutionary relationships of dinosaurs at the origin of birds.

If it's big enough and leafy enough the birds will come
A new study from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology highlights specific features of urban green spaces that support the greatest diversity of bird species.

How do birds understand 'foreign' calls?
New research from Kyoto University show that the coal tit (Periparus ater) can eavesdrop and react to the predatory warning calls of the Japanese tit (Parus minor) and evokes a visual image of the predator in their mind

Microelectronics for birds
Ornithologists and physicists from St Petersburg University have conducted an interdisciplinary study together with colleagues from Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Biological Station Rybachy of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Birds of a feather better not together
A new study of North American birds from Washington University in St.

Not-so-dirty birds? Not enough evidence to link wild birds to food-borne illness
Despite the perception that wild birds in farm fields can cause food-borne illness, a WSU study has found little evidence linking birds to E. coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter outbreaks.

Birds are shrinking as the climate warms
After 40 years of collecting birds that ran into Chicago buildings, scientists have been able to show that the birds have been shrinking as the climate's warmed up.

Diving birds follow each other when fishing
Diving seabirds watch each other to work out when to dive, new research shows.

Read More: Birds News and Birds Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.