Nav: Home

RIT researchers fix Landsat 8 imagery, measurements with 'innovative' algorithm

November 16, 2016

Rochester Institute of Technology researchers have solved a problem nagging NASA's Landsat 8 Earth-sensing satellite.

Stray light in the thermal infrared sensor, or TIRS, reduces accurate temperature measurements of the Earth's surface.

Software developed by Aaron Gerace and Matt Montanaro, senior scientists at RIT's Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science, improves the accuracy of the Landsat 8 data. NASA funded their research with an $86,000 grant.

NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey have approved the algorithm that will automatically process and correct Landsat 8 images and refine reprocessed data.

NASA's Landsat program of Earth-orbiting satellites has monitored global changes to the landscape since 1972. Landsat satellites orbit the Earth's poles and pass over the same spot every 16 days to study how the Earth changes over time.

"Matt and Aaron were the developers, tuners and testers of the algorithm and its parameters," said Brian Markham, Landsat Calibration Scientist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. "The algorithm provides clear improvement in the image quality of the TIRS data and the ability to get accurate temperature measurements of Earth targets, such as lakes, particularly those surrounded by areas of different temperatures. This is important when you are trying to determine if targets are warming or cooling over time."

The effects of stray light on Landsat 8's thermal band measurements were detected shortly after the mission launched in February 2013. Defective optics in the thermal infrared sensor allow unwanted light to enter the optical system and disrupt accurate measurements. According to Gerace and Montanaro, errors have reached as high as 10 degrees Celsius in areas with extreme temperatures like Antarctic or desert regions. Mid-range surface temperatures more typical of the United States are less affected by these wide margins of error, they said.

"Everything you look at with Landsat 8 in the thermal infrared bands appears warmer than it should," Gerace said. "By implementing this fix, people can do accurate science because the temperatures coming from whatever they're looking at is correct now."

A new method to remove the effects of the stray light in the data became a high priority when standard calibration techniques failed to accurately adjust the imagery.

Montanaro had worked for NASA Goddard on the Landsat 8 calibration and TIRS instrument teams. The malfunction was traced to a hardware defect in the telescope, he said. "You would have to replace the telescope to fix this problem."

Gerace and Montanaro went beyond the quick fix of subtracting out the average error from the Landsat 8 imagery and developed a data processing algorithm to estimate the precise amount of extra light in each scene.

"The idea was that if you could determine from where the stray light is coming from and how much we're seeing, then you can use that information as a satellite flies over the scene to determine the stray light," Gerace said. "Our algorithm--adaptively per scene--figures out how much it should subtract to make the temperature accurate," Gerace said.

Jim Irons, deputy director of the Earth Sciences Division and Landsat 8 project scientist at NASA Goddard, called Gerace and Montanaro's solution "innovative."

"They performed a great deal of data analysis to convince the Landsat Science Team, a tough crowd, that their algorithm significantly and consistently improved the accuracy of TIRS data products," Irons said.

The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center in Sioux Falls, S.D., will begin using the software correction in its operational processing of Landsat 8 data in late 2016, Irons said.

The software correction anticipates a concern surrounding the future Landsat 9, slated to launch in 2020.

Montanaro will support the Thermal Infrared Sensor 2 for Landsat 9. "From headquarters to technical people, the No. 1 thing is, how do we prevent stray light from Landsat 9?"

NASA is implementing a hardware fix to the telescope for TIRS-2 before the launch, he noted.

A scientific paper validating Gerace and Montanaro's stray light correction for the Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor is currently under review.
-end-


Rochester Institute of Technology

Related Algorithm Articles:

A new algorithm predicts the difficulty in fighting fire
The tool completes previous studies with new variables and could improve the ability to respond to forest fires.
New algorithm predicts optimal materials among all possible compounds
Skoltech researchers have offered a solution to the problem of searching for materials with required properties among all possible combinations of chemical elements.
New algorithm to help process biological images
Skoltech researchers have presented a new biological image processing method that accurately picks out specific biological objects in complex images.
Skoltech scientists break Google's quantum algorithm
In the near term, Google has devised new quantum enhanced algorithms that operate in the presence of realistic noise.
The most human algorithm
A team from the research group SEES:lab of the Department of Chemical Engineering of the Universitat Rovira I Virgili and ICREA has made a breakthrough with the development of a new algorithm that makes more accurate predictions and generates mathematical models that also make it possible to understand these predictions.
Algorithm turns cancer gene discovery on its head
Prediction method could help personalize cancer treatments and reveal new drug targets.
New algorithm predicts gestational diabetes
Timely prediction may help prevent the condition using nutritional and lifestyle changes.
New algorithm could mean more efficient, accurate equipment for Army
Researchers working on an Army-funded project have developed an algorithm to simulate how electromagnetic waves interact with materials in devices to create equipment more efficiently and accurately.
Universal algorithm set to boost microscopes
EPFL scientists have developed an algorithm that can determine whether a super-resolution microscope is operating at maximum resolution based on a single image.
Algorithm designed to map universe, solve mysteries
Cornell University researchers have developed an algorithm designed to visualize models of the universe in order to solve some of physics' greatest mysteries.
More Algorithm News and Algorithm Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Processing The Pandemic
Between the pandemic and America's reckoning with racism and police brutality, many of us are anxious, angry, and depressed. This hour, TED Fellow and writer Laurel Braitman helps us process it all.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#568 Poker Face Psychology
Anyone who's seen pop culture depictions of poker might think statistics and math is the only way to get ahead. But no, there's psychology too. Author Maria Konnikova took her Ph.D. in psychology to the poker table, and turned out to be good. So good, she went pro in poker, and learned all about her own biases on the way. We're talking about her new book "The Biggest Bluff: How I Learned to Pay Attention, Master Myself, and Win".
Now Playing: Radiolab

Invisible Allies
As scientists have been scrambling to find new and better ways to treat covid-19, they've come across some unexpected allies. Invisible and primordial, these protectors have been with us all along. And they just might help us to better weather this viral storm. To kick things off, we travel through time from a homeless shelter to a military hospital, pondering the pandemic-fighting power of the sun. And then, we dive deep into the periodic table to look at how a simple element might actually be a microbe's biggest foe. This episode was reported by Simon Adler and Molly Webster, and produced by Annie McEwen and Pat Walters. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.