Nav: Home

Drug resistant infections associated with higher in-hospital mortality rates in India

November 16, 2018

Washington, DC - In one of the largest studies to measure the burden of antibiotic resistance in a low- or middle-income country, researchers at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy report that in-hospital mortality is significantly higher among patients infected with multi-drug resistant (MDR) or extensively drug resistant (XDR) pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii.

Researchers analyzed antimicrobial susceptibility testing results and mortality outcomes for over 4,000 patients who visited one of ten tertiary or quaternary referral hospitals across India in 2015. Pathogens were classified as MDR or XDR based on drug susceptibility profiles proposed by the European and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mortality data was restricted to in-hospital deaths. Additional demographic and clinical data including age, sex, place of infection acquisition, and location in the hospital (i.e., intensive care unit [ICU] or non-intensive care unit) were also collected.

The overall mortality rate among all study participants was 13.1 percent, with mortality as high as 29.0 percent among patients infected with A. baumannii. Patients who died were more likely to have been older and admitted to the ICU at the time of testing. Researchers also found that among MDR infections, those caused by Gram-negative bacteria were associated with higher mortality rates compared to those caused by Gram-positive bacteria, with rates of 17.7 percent and 10.8 percent, respectively.

Study results indicate that patients who acquired MDR bacterial infections were 1.57 times more likely to die, compared to patients with similar susceptible infections, while patients who acquired XDR infections were 2.65 times more likely to die when accounting for age, sex, site of infection, and the number of coinfections.

In both the ICU and non-ICU, odds of mortality were higher among patients with XDR infections; this association was driven by Gram-negative infections (e.g., XDR K. pneumoniae) highlighting the importance of rapidly identifying these infections among all patients.

In India, MDR and XDR Gram-negative bacterial infections are frequent, and the availability of effective antibiotic therapies are declining. This study provides greater insight into the urgent need to increase surveillance, research, and antimicrobial stewardship efforts worldwide. The researchers further note that these findings on the mortality burden of antibiotic resistance can aid in the development of policy efforts to prioritize antibiotic resistance as a global public health threat and to inform future efforts to quantify and track the burden of resistance across low- and middle-income countries.
-end-
The study titled, "The mortality burden of multidrug-resistant pathogens in India: a retrospective observational study" was published on November 8, 2018 in Clinical Infectious Diseases and is available online here.

About the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy

The Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) produces independent, multidisciplinary research to advance the health and wellbeing of human populations around the world. CDDEP projects are global in scope, spanning Africa, Asia, and North America and include scientific studies and policy engagement. The CDDEP team is experienced in addressing country-specific and regional issues, as well as the local and global aspects of global challenges, such as antibiotic resistance and pandemic influenza. CDDEP research is notable for innovative approaches to design and analysis, which are shared widely through publications, presentations and web-based programs. CDDEP has offices in Washington, D.C. and New Delhi and relies on a distinguished team of scientists, public health experts and economists.

Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy

Related Antibiotic Resistance Articles:

Cause of antibiotic resistance identified
Bacteria can change form in human body, hiding the cell wall inside themselves to avoid detection.
The solution to antibiotic resistance could be in your kitchen sponge
Researchers from the New York Institute of Technology (NYIT) have discovered bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, living in their kitchen sponges.
Antibiotic resistance in spore-forming probiotic bacteria
New research has found that six probiotic Bacillus strains are resistant to several antibiotics.
How bacteria acquire antibiotic resistance in the presence of antibiotics
A new study's disconcerting findings reveal how antibiotic resistance is able to spread between bacteria cells despite the presence of antibiotics that should prevent them from growing.
Five rules to tackle antibiotic resistance
Current efforts to tackle antibiotic resistance are 'not nearly radical enough,' a leading scientist says.
Breaking open the gates of antibiotic resistance
Creating a defect in tRNA molecules could weaken bacteria's two-pronged defense and help make faster-acting antibiotics
Wastewater reveals the levels of antibiotic resistance in a region
A comparison of seven European countries shows that the amount of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater reflects the prevalence of clinical antibiotic resistance in the region.
Bacteria 'trap' could help slow down antibiotic resistance
Scientists have developed a new and faster test for identifying how single bacteria react to antibiotics, which could help in the fight against antimicrobial resistance.
New strategy may curtail spread of antibiotic resistance
In studying a bacterium that causes disease in hospitalized people, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Antibiotic resistance in the environment linked to fecal pollution
A study shows that 'crAssphage', a virus specific to bacteria in human feces, is highly correlated to the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in environmental samples.
More Antibiotic Resistance News and Antibiotic Resistance Current Events

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2019.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Risk
Why do we revere risk-takers, even when their actions terrify us? Why are some better at taking risks than others? This hour, TED speakers explore the alluring, dangerous, and calculated sides of risk. Guests include professional rock climber Alex Honnold, economist Mariana Mazzucato, psychology researcher Kashfia Rahman, structural engineer and bridge designer Ian Firth, and risk intelligence expert Dylan Evans.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#540 Specialize? Or Generalize?
Ever been called a "jack of all trades, master of none"? The world loves to elevate specialists, people who drill deep into a single topic. Those people are great. But there's a place for generalists too, argues David Epstein. Jacks of all trades are often more successful than specialists. And he's got science to back it up. We talk with Epstein about his latest book, "Range: Why Generalists Triumph in a Specialized World".
Now Playing: Radiolab

Dolly Parton's America: Neon Moss
Today on Radiolab, we're bringing you the fourth episode of Jad's special series, Dolly Parton's America. In this episode, Jad goes back up the mountain to visit Dolly's actual Tennessee mountain home, where she tells stories about her first trips out of the holler. Back on the mountaintop, standing under the rain by the Little Pigeon River, the trip triggers memories of Jad's first visit to his father's childhood home, and opens the gateway to dizzying stories of music and migration. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.