First compelling evidence for a black hole after recent supernova

November 17, 2010

Amsterdam, November 17th, 2010¬ -- Black holes, or the remnants of hyper-or supernova explosions, have intrigued scientists since the concept was first introduced in 1967. Astronomers have only ever been able to observe gamma-ray bursts, considered the births of young black holes, at far distance. Researchers have now found compelling evidence for the birth of a black hole in the so-called local Universe--representing the youngest black hole ever discovered in our cosmic neighborhood. The results of this research have been published in the most recent issue of the Elsevier journal New Astronomy vol 16 Issue 3.

Making use of archival data from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, astronomers Daniel Patnaude, Avi Loeb and Christine Jones had a closer look at SN 1979C, a supernova in the galaxy M100. Earlier studies by Kasen and Bildsten (2010) and by Woosley (2010) suggested that SN 1979C, a "type IIL supernova", may have been powered by the birth of a magnetar - a neutron star with an extremely strong magnetic field. Observing a remarkably constant X-ray luminosity from supernova SN 1979 however, the authors propose that the late time glow of the supernova is more consistent with a stellar mass black hole accreting material from either a fallback disk or from a binary companion. They conclude that SN 1979C is likely to harbor a black hole with a mass five times that of the Sun. Furthermore, the black hole may be accreting matter from its surroundings or from a companion star.

"This is potentially a very important result. Seeing a black hole being born is exciting in its own right, but it also informs our models of how massive stars die and make supernovae. How did the implosion of the inner five solar masses of a massive star to a black hole create an explosion of the rest of the star and an extremely brilliant display, i.e. SN 1979C? Is the observed X-ray emission truly a unique signature of a black hole? We can expect to hear a lot more from the theorists on this one", says Professor Stanley Woosley, Editor of the journal New Astronomy.

Publisher of New Astronomy, Jose Stoop, also remarked, "We believe that these critical observations will help reveal which stars end up as black holes, and which ones as neutron stars. The authors suggest that this particular supernova, formed when a star about 20 times more massive than the sun collapsed, could have been right on the edge of becoming a black hole".

The data was derived from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This Observatory is part of NASA's "Great Observatories" program and was launched in 1999. The program also comprises the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope and the now deorbited Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. NASA has organized a press conference on November 15th 2010 to discuss the above results. The press conference was broadcasted live at NASA TV.
Notes to Editors: "Evidence for a possible black hole remnant in the Type IIL Supernova 1979C" New Astronomy, Volume 16, Issue 3, April 2011, Pages 187-190 by D.J. Patnaude, A. Loeb, C. Jones will be freely available for a period of three months.

About the authors

Dr. Daniel Patnaude works at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory at Harvard University Prof. Avi Loeb is a Professor at the Harvard University, Department of Astronomy and is the director of the Institute for Theory and Computation, within the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Dr. Christine Jones is affiliated with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

About New Astronomy

New Astronomy publishes articles in all fields of astronomy and astrophysics, with a particular focus on computational astronomy: mathematical and astronomy techniques and methodology, simulations, modeling and numerical results and computational techniques in instrumentation. The journal covers solar, stellar, galactic and extragalactic astronomy and astrophysics. It reports on original research in all wavelength bands, ranging from radio to gamma-ray.

About Elsevier

Elsevier is a world-leading publisher of scientific, technical and medical information products and services. The company works in partnership with the global science and health communities to publish more than 2,000 journals, including The Lancet and Cell, and close to 20,000 book titles, including major reference works from Mosby and Saunders. Elsevier's online solutions include SciVerse ScienceDirect, SciVerse Scopus, Reaxys, MD Consult and Nursing Consult, which enhance the productivity of science and health professionals, and the SciVal suite and MEDai's Pinpoint Review, which help research and health care institutions deliver better outcomes more cost-effectively.

A global business headquartered in Amsterdam, Elsevier employs 7,000 people worldwide. The company is part of Reed Elsevier Group PLC, a world-leading publisher and information provider, which is jointly owned by Reed Elsevier PLC and Reed Elsevier NV. The ticker symbols are REN (Euronext Amsterdam), REL (London Stock Exchange), RUK and ENL (New York Stock Exchange).


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