Consuming cholera toxin counteracts age-associated obesity

November 19, 2019

Here the research team tested a safe and well-established microbe-based immune adjuvant to restore immune homeostasis and counteract inflammation-associated obesity in animal models.

Taken together, they concluded that oral vaccination with cholera toxin B helps stimulate health-protective immune responses that counteract age-associated obesity.

Dr. Susan E. Erdman from the Division of Comparative Medicine, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, MA, United States said, "The global burden of chronic inflammatory diseases is increasing at alarming rates."

The continuous rise of obesity, cardiovascular and chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, infertility, allergy and autoimmunity, cancer, and central nervous system dysfunctions, including anxiety and autism, appears to link with modernized lifestyle but remains inexplicable.

Figure 1: Early-life intervention with ctB rescues mice from age-associated obesity and inflammation. Shown are data collected from C57BL/6 mice of both genders at the age of 9 months. (a) At gross examination of whole body morphology, both female and male mice that consumed low doses of ctB eight months earlier have leaner physiques by comparison with untreated controls. (b) Treated mice also have less crown-like structures (CLS, arrow-heads), caused by adipocyte death-related inflammation, in their abdominal fat; (c) less myeloperoxidase-positive (MPO) granulocytes in their spleens; and (d) more anti-inflammatory Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells in their mesenteric lymph nodes compared to control mice. (e) Body weight and histomorphometrical analyses shows that the long-lasting effects of ctB are statistically significant. (a) Hematoxylin and Eosin. Scale bars: 250 μm. IHC; Diaminobenzidine chromogen, Hematoxylin counterstain. Scale bars: 25 μm. (b) Numbers on the y-axis of bar graphs correspond to the mean±SEM of the parameter assessed; *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

Underlying systemic immune imbalances linked with bacteria residing in the gut have been proposed as a probable cause of obesity.

In this context, obesity is one of many chronic inflammatory diseases associated with modern living.

Important effects of gut microbiota in mammalian physiology, including metabolism and CNS functions, place gut microbe-immune cell interactions in the hypothetical center of chronic inflammatory disorders such as obesity.

In this regard, postbiotic gut bacterial fractions used for oral immunizations have been found to stabilize the immune system and counteract destructive inflammatory responses later in life in both humans and animals.

Immune adjuvant properties of cholera-toxin, make it an attractive tool for induction of tolerance that stabilizes the immune system.

The Erdman research team concluded, "Indeed, systemic immune imbalances related to failure of tolerance have been proposed as a cause of extra-intestinal cancer linked with bacteria residing in the gut.

It remains to be seen whether this gut immune-centric strategy broadly translates to successes in the clinic; however, the versatility of ct B to manipulate immune responses make this protein a promising adjuvant for vaccine development to combat a growing Westernized public health crisis."

Impact Journals LLC

Related Obesity Articles from Brightsurf:

11 years of data add to the evidence for using testosterone therapy to treat obesity, including as an alternative to obesity surgery
New research covering 11 years of data presented at this year's European and International Congress on Obesity (ECOICO 2020) show that, in obese men suffering from hypogonadism (low testosterone), treatment with testosterone injections lowers their weight and improves a wide range of other metabolic parameters.

Overlap between immunology of COVID-19 and obesity could explain the increased risk of death in people living with obesity, and also older patients
Data presented in a special COVID-19 session at the European and International Congress on Obesity (ECOICO 2020) suggests that there are overlaps between the immunological disturbances found in both COVID-19 disease and patients with obesity, which could explain the increased disease severity and mortality risk faced by obese patients, and also elderly patients, who are infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 disease.

New obesity guideline: Address root causes as foundation of obesity management
besity management should focus on outcomes that patients consider to be important, not weight loss alone, and include a holistic approach that addresses the root causes of obesity, according to a new clinical practice guideline published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal)

Changing the debate around obesity
The UK's National Health Service (NHS) needs to do more to address the ingrained stigma and discrimination faced by people with obesity, says a leading health psychologist.

Study links longer exposure to obesity and earlier development of obesity to increased risk of type 2 diabetes
Cumulative exposure to obesity could be at least as important as actually being obese in terms of risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), concludes new research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]).

How much do obesity and addictions overlap?
A large analysis of personality studies has found that people with obesity behave somewhat like people with addictions to alcohol or drugs.

Should obesity be recognized as a disease?
With obesity now affecting almost a third (29%) of the population in England, and expected to rise to 35% by 2030, should we now recognize it as a disease?

Is obesity associated with risk of pediatric MS?
A single-center study of 453 children in Germany with multiple sclerosis (MS) investigated the association of obesity with pediatric MS risk and with the response of first-line therapy in children with MS.

Women with obesity prior to conception are more likely to have children with obesity
A systematic review and meta-analysis identified significantly increased odds of child obesity when mothers have obesity before conception, according to a study published June 11, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by Nicola Heslehurst of Newcastle University in the UK, and colleagues.

Obesity medicine association announces major updates to its adult obesity algorithm
The Obesity Medicine Association (OMA) announced the immediate availability of the 2019 OMA Adult Obesity Algorithm, with new information for clinicians including the relationship between Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, Dyslipidemia, and Cancer; information on investigational Anti-Obesity Pharmacotherapy; treatments for Lipodystrophy; and Pharmacokinetics and Obesity.

Read More: Obesity News and Obesity Current Events is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to