Breastfeeding lowers risk of type 2 diabetes following gestational diabetesNovember 23, 2015
OAKLAND, Calif., November 23, 2015 -- Women with gestational diabetes who consistently and continuously breastfeed from the time of giving birth are half as likely to develop type 2 diabetes within two years after delivery, according to a study from Kaiser Permanente published today in Annals of Internal Medicine.
Gestational diabetes mellitus, or high blood glucose during pregnancy, is diagnosed in 5 percent to 9 percent of all pregnancies in the United States -- approximately 250,000 women annually. Women with gestational diabetes are up to seven times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes within several years after pregnancy. Breastfeeding is recommended for women with GDM, but previous studies exploring the impact of breastfeeding on subsequent development of diabetes have had inconsistent findings.
In this study, women who exclusively or mostly breastfed for at least two months after giving birth, and those who continued to breastfeed for several months, were able to cut their risk for type 2 diabetes by half.
"Both the level and duration of breastfeeding may offer unique benefits to women during the post-delivery period for protection against development of type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes pregnancy," said lead author Erica P. Gunderson, PhD, MPH, MS, epidemiologist and senior research scientist at the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research.
The "Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after GDM Pregnancy," also known as the SWIFT Study, is the first to measure breastfeeding on a monthly basis during the first year after delivery and to enroll a statistically significant number of women with gestational diabetes. It is also the first to evaluate social, behavioral and prenatal risk factors that influence development of type 2 diabetes, as well as breastfeeding initiation and success.
The study enrolled more than 1,000 Kaiser Permanente members in Northern California who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes during pregnancy between 2008 and 2011. The SWIFT cohort was racially and ethnically diverse, with 75 percent of the women reporting Hispanic, Asian or African-American heritage. In-person exams, which included oral glucose tolerance tests, were conducted at six to nine weeks after delivery as women enrolled in the study, and again at one year and two years post-delivery in those who did not have diabetes at baseline.
Almost 12 percent of women in the study developed type 2 diabetes within two years after delivery. Those who exclusively formula-fed their babies at six to nine weeks of age were more than twice as likely to develop diabetes as women who exclusively breastfed their infants. There was a graded 35 percent to 57 percent reduction in the two-year diabetes incidence associated with greater lactation intensity -- from exclusively formula-feeding to exclusively breastfeeding, and with increasing lactation duration -- from less than two months to more than 10 months of breastfeeding.
A major strength of the study was the ability to control for numerous influences on breastfeeding and other diabetes risk factors, including maternal obesity before pregnancy, gestational weight gain, prenatal metabolism, treatment for gestational diabetes, C-section delivery, infant size and birth outcomes, race/ethnicity, and lifestyle behaviors such as diet, physical activity and weight change. The association between breastfeeding intensity and duration with lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes remained after accounting for these variables.
"These findings highlight the importance of prioritizing breastfeeding education and support for women with gestational diabetes as part of early diabetes prevention efforts by health care systems," Dr. Gunderson concluded.
Primary funding for the study was the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (R01 HD050625, Dr. Gunderson). Other sources included the Kaiser Permanente Community Benefit Program, the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources.
About the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research
The Kaiser Permanente Division of Research conducts, publishes, and disseminates epidemiologic and health services research to improve the health and medical care of Kaiser Permanente members and society at large. It seeks to understand the determinants of illness and well-being, and to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of health care. Currently, DOR's 500-plus staff is working on more than 400 epidemiological and health services research projects. For more information, visit http://www.dor.kaiser.org or follow us @KPDOR.
About Kaiser Permanente
Kaiser Permanente is committed to helping shape the future of health care. We are recognized as one of America's leading health care providers and not-for-profit health plans. Founded in 1945, Kaiser Permanente has a mission to provide high-quality, affordable health care services and to improve the health of our members and the communities we serve. We currently serve more than 10 million members in eight states and the District of Columbia. Care for members and patients is focused on their total health and guided by their personal physicians, specialists and team of caregivers. Our expert and caring medical teams are empowered and supported by industry-leading technology advances and tools for health promotion, disease prevention, state-of-the-art care delivery and world-class chronic disease management. Kaiser Permanente is dedicated to care innovations, clinical research, health education and the support of community health. For more information, go to: kp.org/share.
Related Diabetes Articles:
There has been no known link between diabetes and vitamin A -- until now.
Two studies in the Jan. 24/31 issue of JAMA find that use of a sensor implanted under the skin that continuously monitors glucose levels resulted in improved levels in patients with type 1 diabetes who inject insulin multiple times a day, compared to conventional treatment.
T2D Lifestyle, a national survey by Health Union of more than 400 individuals experiencing type 2 diabetes (T2D), reveals that patients not only struggle with commonly understood complications, but also numerous lesser known ones that people do not associate with diabetes.
Social and economic factors have led to a dramatic rise in type 2 diabetes and obesity around the world.
An international team of researchers has discovered a simple, accurate new way to predict which women with gestational diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes after delivery.
Older Americans with diabetes born in the 1940s are living longer and with less disability performing day to day tasks than those born 10 years earlier, according to new research published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal.
A new study from Newcastle University, UK, has shown that people who reverse their diabetes and then keep their weight down remain free of diabetes.
Although insulin-producing cells are found in the endocrine tissue of the pancreas, a new mouse study suggests that abnormalities in the exocrine tissue could cause cell non-autonomous effects that promotes diabetes-like symptoms.
A new study published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal suggests that reducing sugar content in sugar sweetened drinks (including fruit juices) in the UK by 40 percent over five years, without replacing them with any artificial sweeteners, could prevent 500,000 cases of overweight and 1 million cases of obesity, in turn preventing around 300,000 cases of type 2 diabetes, over two decades.
Women with gestational diabetes who consistently and continuously breastfeed from the time of giving birth are half as likely to develop type 2 diabetes within two years after delivery, according to a study from Kaiser Permanente published today in Annals of Internal Medicine.
Related Diabetes Reading:
Bright Spots & Landmines: The Diabetes Guide I Wish Someone Had Handed Me
by Adam Brown (Author), Kelly L. Close (Foreword)
Adam Brown’s acclaimed diaTribe column, Adam’s Corner, has brought life-transforming diabetes tips to over 1 million people since 2013. In this highly actionable guide, he shares the food, mindset, exercise, and sleep strategies that have had the biggest positive impact on his diabetes – and hopefully yours too! Bright Spots & Landmines is filled with hundreds of effective diabetes tips, questions, and shortcuts, including what to eat to minimize blood sugar swings; helpful strategies to feel less stressed, guilty, and burned out; and simple ways to improve exercise and... View Details
The End of Diabetes: The Eat to Live Plan to Prevent and Reverse Diabetes
by Dr. Joel Fuhrman (Author)
The New York Times bestselling author of Eat to Live and Super Immunity and one of the country’s leading experts on preventive medicine offers a scientifically proven, practical program to prevent and reverse diabetes—without drugs.
At last, a breakthrough program to combat the rising diabetes epidemic and help millions of diabetics, as well as those suffering with high blood pressure and heart disease. Joel Fuhrman, M.D. Research director of the Nutritional Research Foundation, shows you how to live a long, healthy, and happy life—disease free. He... View Details
Dr. Neal Barnard's Program for Reversing Diabetes: The Scientifically Proven System for Reversing Diabetes Without Drugs
by Neal Barnard M.D. (Author)
Tackle diabetes and its complications for good with this newly updated edition of Dr. Neal Barnard's groundbreaking program.
Revised and updated, this latest edition of Dr. Barnard’s groundbreaking book features a new preface, updates to diagnostic and monitoring standards, recent research studies, and fresh success stories of people who have eliminated their diabetes by following this life-changing plan.
Before Dr. Barnard’s scientific breakthrough, most health professionals believed that once you developed diabetes, you were stuck with it―and could anticipate one... View Details
Diabetes For Dummies
by Alan L. Rubin (Author)
The straight facts on treating diabetes successfully
With diabetes now considered pandemic throughout the world, there have been enormous advances in the field. Now significantly revised and updated, this new edition of Diabetes For Dummies includes the latest information on diabetes medications and monitoring equipment, new findings about treating diabetes in the young and elderly, new ways to diagnose and treat long- and short-term complications, updated nutritional guidelines, new tools for measuring blood sugar and delivering insulin to the body, and much more.
There's... View Details
Choose Your Foods: Food Lists for Diabetes
by American Diabetes Association (Author)
The standard for diabetes meal planning for over 60 years, this edition features updated carbohydrate, protein, and fat information for a wide variety of foods and beverages and replaces exchange terminology with choices. Includes tips on exercise, reading food labels, and a glossary of diabetes related terms. View Details
The Official Pocket Guide to Diabetic Food Choices
by American Diabetes Association ADA (Author)
Completely updated to match the newest edition of Choose Your Foods: Food Lists for Diabetes Meal Planning, this pocket-sized guide is now better and more complete than ever.
Every day and at every meal, millions of people use the food list system to plan meals, make healthier choices, and better estimate portions. This proven system is the most popular approach to diabetes meal planning and has been used by dietitians, diabetes educators, and millions of people with diabetes for more than 70 years. This portable version of the Food Lists takes all of the information from... View Details
Diabetic Living Diabetes Meals by the Plate: 90 Low-Carb Meals to Mix & Match
by Diabetic Living Editors (Author)
An easy, graphic guide to planning delicious, diabetes-friendly meals This innovative, graphic cookbook offers the easiest and most flavorful way to build complete meals that are diabetes-friendly and delicious. Sidestepping complex programs that turn meal-planning into work, the 90 complete meals in Diabetes Meals by the Plate follow the Plate Method—a simple approach to eating the right foods in proper amounts by filling your plate with one half nonstarchy vegetables, one quarter protein, and one quarter starch. A clever photo style showing every meal in its three... View Details
Dr. Bernstein's Diabetes Solution: The Complete Guide to Achieving Normal Blood Sugars
by Richard K. Bernstein (Author)
9780316182690 Features: -Title: Dr. Bernstein's Diabetes Solution. -Sub title: The Complete Guide to Achieving Normal Blood Sugars. -ISBN: 0316182699. -ISBN 13: 9780316182690. -General subject: Health and fitness. -Subject: Health and fitness / diseases / diabetes. Subject: -Health & Fitness. Country of Manufacture: -United States. Age Group: -Adults. Dimensions: Overall Height - Top to Bottom: -1.75". Overall Width - Side to Side: -9.75". Overall Depth - Front to Back: -6.5". Overall Product Weight: -1.8 lbs. View Details
The First Year: Type 2 Diabetes: An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed (The Complete First Year)
by Gretchen Becker (Author), Allison B. Goldfine (Author)
The go-to step-by-step guide that walks you through the first days, weeks, and months of your diagnosis–fully revised and updated
Gretchen Becker was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in 1996; over the past twenty years, she has educated herself on every aspect of the condition by reading medical texts and journals, talking with doctors, and corresponding with others who have type 2, sharing everything she's learned in a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide. Now in its third edition, The First Year: Type 2 Diabetes takes you through everything you need to learn and do in your... View Details
Taste of Home Diabetes Cookbook: Eat right, feel great with 370 family-friendly, crave-worthy dishes!
by Taste of Home (Editor)
Eat what you love and feel great with Taste of Home Diabetes Cookbook!
Looking to eat healthier?
Need to cut back on sugar and carbs?
Cooking for someone on a special diet?
With Taste of Home Diabetes Cookbook it’s a snap to serve mouthwatering sensations that everyone at the table will savor…whether they’re following a diabetic diet or not. Inside this all-new collection, you’ll find 370 mouthwatering dishes, each accompanied by a complete set of Nutrition Facts and Diabetic Exchanges. All of these must-try recipes were reviewed by a... View Details