Optimizing antiviral peptide vaccines

November 28, 2001

Costimulatory receptors on T cell surface modulate the signaling pathways that activate lymphocytes against specific antigens, often with profound effects on the ultimate host response. Ahlers et al. have followed the immune cell interactions that lead to the development of antiviral immunity in animals vaccinated with an HIV peptide. These interactions, occurring between antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) and antigen-specific Th cells and CTLs, are altered fundamentally depending on whether the co-stimulatory protein CD40L is induced on Th cells. The authors compare the effects of two, nearly identical peptide vaccines. One carries an HIV surface epitope linked to a helper peptide that binds a known Class II MHC molecule, while the other contains a single amino acid substitution in the helper peptide. This subtle change, which retains the antigenic sequence but increases the peptide?s affinity for the MHC molecule, was previously shown to yield a more vigorous CTL response against the HIV sequence. Ahlers et al. now show that the tighter binding activates CD40L expression and results in a qualitatively different response to the vaccine?one in which Th cells are induced to express Th1-type cytokines, thus supporting CTL activity. The native peptide sequence, in contrast, yields a mix of Th1- and Th2-type cytokines and a weak CTL response. If such enhanced epitopes can be shown to activate costimulatory pathways and to increase Th1 polarization in other settings, this work could provide an important strategy for improving peptide vaccines.
-end-


JCI Journals

Related Peptide Articles from Brightsurf:

Beetroot peptide as potential drug candidate for treating diseases
In a recent study, a research group led by Christian Gruber at MedUni Vienna's Institute of Pharmacology isolated a peptide (small protein molecule) from beetroot.

New research reveals antifungal symbiotic peptide in legume
Danforth Center scientists, Dilip Shah, PhD, research associate member, Siva Velivelli, PhD, postdoctoral associate, Kirk Czymmek, PhD, principal investigator and director, Advanced Bioimaging Laboratory and their collaborators at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have identified a sub class of peptides in the nodules of the legume, Medicago truncatula that proved effective in inhibiting growth of the fungus causing gray mold.

Fluorescent peptide nanoparticles, in every color of the rainbow
The discovery of green fluorescent protein (GFP), which is made by a jellyfish, transformed cell biology.

Oncotarget: Australian experience of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy
Oncotarget Volume 11, Issue 27 published ''Australian experience of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in lung neuroendocrine tumours'' by Lim et al. which reported peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an approved treatment modality for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, although Phase III randomised clinical trial data is not available for NETs of other site of origin, in practice, PRRT is used more widely in clinical practice, based on its mechanism of targeting the somatostatin receptor.

Designing peptide inhibitors for possible COVID-19 treatments
Scientists across the globe are rushing to find inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2, the new coronavirus behind the COVID-19 pandemic.

Paving the way for new peptide-based therapeutics with novel method of phage display
Chemists at Texas A&M University are taking a p[h]age from bacteria's playbook in order to beat viruses at their own game and develop new drugs to fight cancer and a host of other human diseases in the process.

Preventing, healing tooth decay with a bioactive peptide
Cavities, or dental caries, are the most widespread non-communicable disease globally, according to the World Health Organization.

Specific insulin-like peptide regulates how beetle 'weapons' grow
A scientist from Tokyo Metropolitan University and coworkers have discovered that a specific insulin-like peptide called ILP2 regulates the size of 'weapons' in Gnatocerus cornutus beetles in different nutritional environments.

Peptide hydrogels could help heal traumatic brain injuries
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) -- defined as a bump, blow or jolt to the head that disrupts normal brain function -- sent 2.5 million people in the U.S. to the emergency room in 2014.

Metals influence C-peptide hormone related to insulin
Metals such as zinc, copper and chromium bind to and influence a peptide involved in insulin production, according to new work from chemists at UC Davis.

Read More: Peptide News and Peptide Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.