Healy researchers make a series of striking discoveries about Arctic Ocean

November 28, 2001

Contrary to their expectations, scientists on a research cruise to the Arctic Ocean have found evidence that the Gakkel Ridge, the world's slowest spreading mid-ocean ridge, may be very volcanically active. They also believe that conditions in a field of undersea vents, known as "black smokers," could support previously unknown species of marine life.

The findings were among a range of discoveries made by researchers aboard the US Coast Guard Cutter Healy, an icebreaker equipped for science, and a companion German research vessel, the Polarstern, in late August, early in a nine-week cruise to the Gakkel Ridge, Earth's least volcanically active mid-ocean ridge.

"We accomplished easily a factor of two more than we planned," said Peter Michael, of the University of Tulsa, the U.S. chief scientist on the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition (AMORE).

Michael and other AMORE researchers discussed their findings Nov. 28 at a news conference at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C.

Among other important milestones from the cruise, scientists discovered an as yet unexplained "discontinuity" of volcanic activity along the Gakkel Ridge. Because the southern end of the ridge is spreading relatively quickly and the northern end extremely slowly, the researchers expected volcanic activity to gradually die out as they sailed north. Instead, there were irregular pockets of activity as the cruise moved northwards.

They said they were also pleased to discover that they were able to map the ridge in great detail from the Healy because the vessel was much quieter when breaking ice than expected.

"Our maps show that this ridge is tectonically very different than other ridges, the rift valley is close to a mile deeper with many enormous long-lived faults", explained Henry Dick, an expedition co-chief scientist from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. "This likely accounts for why so many hydrothermal plumes were found here."

Prior to the AMORE cruise most scientists expected little recent volcanic activity and scant evidence for hydrothermal vents, the deep-sea hot springs that host oases of life on the deep seafloor. Instead, sampling sites revealed abundant fresh lava and multiple signs of hydrothermal activity.

Most surprisingly, a dredge team, led by Jeffrey Standish, a graduate student at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, recovered fresh sulfides that apparently are part of "black smoker" chimneys, the most striking manifestation of hydrothermal activity. The find was verified by a camera and sensor package lowered to the seafloor from the Polarstern that showed intact sulfide chimneys and recorded warm water vents. The expedition proposed the name "Aurora" for the vent field.

"We found more hydrothermal activity on this cruise than in 20 years of exploration on the mid-Atlantic Ridge," said Charles Langmuir, co-chief scientist on Healy from Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) at Columbia University.

While the heated water from the hydrothermal vents does not significantly affect ocean temperatures, the vents have attracted the attention of both biologists and geologists. Hydrothermal vents on mid-ocean ridges in the world's oceans provide chemical energy that supports exotic life forms and large ecosystems far removed from the Earth's sunlit surface, where photosynthesis forms the base of the food chain. "Our discovery of these signals clearly show that hydrothermal vents similar to those present on faster spreading mid-ocean ridges are present in abundance here, too," said AMORE researcher Henrietta Edmonds of the University of Texas.

AMORE mapped and sampled the Gakkel Ridge which, extends 1100 miles from north of Greenland to Siberia, all of it beneath the Arctic ice cap. The ridge is the deepest and most remote portion of the global mid-ocean ridge system, where new ocean crust is continuously created as seafloor spreading takes place through volcanic activity. Many theories about seafloor spreading can be tested only on a slow-spreading ridge like the Gakkel. Geologists, oceanographers and biologists on both ships recovered numerous samples of rocks, mud, water as well as organisms from the seafloor that they will analyze in their labs.

The Arctic Ocean's isolation from major ocean basins has led scientists to debate whether ecosystems on Gakkel Ridge would more resemble those from the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans, or whether they would have evolved separately. "These exciting discoveries on Gakkel Ridge pave the way for future expeditions that will map the vents and may discover completely new organisms" Michael said.

The AMORE research was the first full science expedition for HEALY after an extensive four-month program of icebreaking and science equipment testing in the Arctic last year.
-end-
Program contact:
Jane Dionne
703-292-8030/jdionne@nsf.gov

Editors: For B-roll, contact Dena Headlee 703-292-8070/dheadlee@nsf.gov

The news conference will be webcast at http://www.connectLive.com/events/nsf

For more information from Columbia University about the AMORE cruise, including the ship's log, see http://www.earthscape.org/frames/news2frame.html

For more information from Woods Hole, see http://www.whoi.edu/

For more information about Healy, see http://www.uscg.mil/pacarea/healy/

National Science Foundation

Related Hydrothermal Vents Articles from Brightsurf:

New ethane-munching microbes discovered at hot vents
Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen have discovered a microbe that feeds on ethane at deep-sea hot vents.

Hydrogen energy at the root of life
A team of international researchers in Germany, France and Japan is making progress on answering the question of the origin of life.

Solving the mystery of carbon on ocean floor
Little bits of black carbon littering the ocean floor, separate and distinct from the organic carbon believed to come from the ocean's surface.

Deep sea vents had ideal conditions for origin of life
By creating protocells in hot, alkaline seawater, a UCL-led research team has added to evidence that the origin of life could have been in deep-sea hydrothermal vents rather than shallow pools, in a new study published in Nature Ecology & Evolution.

Simple hydrothermal method to produce tin dioxide for lithium-ion battery
In a paper to be published in the forthcoming issue in NANO, a group of researchers led by Wei Zhang from the Yunnan Minzu University, China have developed a simple, low cost and eco-friendly method to synthesize SnO2 nanorods for lithium ion batteries.

Detecting hydrothermal vents in volcanic lakes
Changes in the behaviour of hydrothermal vents may be indicative of changes in the volcanic system underneath, thus being a useful precursor for the next generation of early warning systems.

How deep-ocean vents fuel massive phytoplankton blooms
A new study suggests vents in the seafloor may affect life near the ocean's surface and the global carbon cycle more than previously thought.

Giant X-ray 'chimneys' are exhaust vents for vast energies produced at Milky Way's center
At the center of our galaxy, where an enormous black hole blasts out energy as it chows down on interstellar detritus while neighboring stars burst to life and explode. astronomers have discovered two exhaust channels -- dubbed the 'galactic center chimneys' -- that appear to funnel matter and energy away from the cosmic fireworks.

Japanese student discovers new crustacean species in deep sea hydrothermal vent
A new species of microcrustacean was collected from a submarine hot spring (hydrothermal vent) of a marine volcano (Myojin-sho caldera) in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Japan.

Microbes from marine volcanic vents reveal how humans adjusted to a changing atmosphere
The findings, published today in Cell by scientists at Van Andel Research Institute (VARI), University of Georgia (UGA) and Washington State University, detail the structure of MBH, a molecular complex involved in microbial respiration.

Read More: Hydrothermal Vents News and Hydrothermal Vents Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.