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Patients should stop using e-cigarettes before plastic surgery, experts conclude

November 29, 2016

Nov. 29, 2016 - Cigarette smokers are at increased risk of complications after plastic surgery. Could e-cigarette users face a similar risk? Evidence and recommendations related to e-cigarette use by plastic surgery patients are discussed in a special topic paper in the December issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).

"Refraining from [e-cigarette] use four weeks before surgery is a prudent course of action, despite the fact that it has yet to be determined if the effects are similar to traditional cigarettes," write ASPS Member Surgeons Dr. Peter Taub of Mount Sinai Medical Center and Dr. Alan Matarasso of Albert Einstein College of Medicine, both in New York City.

Potential Harms Lead to Advice to Stop E-Cig Use before Plastic Surgery

The researchers reviewed previous research on the potential health effects of e-cigarettes, with the goal of making recommendations for patients undergoing plastic and reconstructive surgery. Use of e-cigarettes -- sometimes called "vaping" -- has rapidly gained in popularity in recent years.

It has been suggested that e-cigarettes may be safer than traditional cigarettes, and might even be a useful "bridge" to smoking cessation. But there's also continued concern about the potential harmful health effects of e-cigarettes.

"The long-term effects of inhaling nicotine vapor are unclear, but there is no evidence to date that it causes cancer or heart disease as cigarette smoking does," Drs. Taub and Matarasso write. They note that the US Food and Drug Administration has published a "cautious blueprint" for the regulation of e-cigarettes.

The concern about e-cigarette use stems from the increased risk of complications after plastic surgery in cigarette smokers. Patients who smoke are more likely to have failure of the skin flaps used for many types of plastic and reconstructive surgery procedures. These skin flap complications are thought to be related to nicotine-induced reductions in blood flow (vasoconstriction).

Many "vapers" use e-cigarette solutions that contain nicotine, which might lead to similar adverse effects. The risk isn't necessarily the same, as cigarette smoke also contains other compounds that might affect blood flow. But there are also questions about other potentially toxic substances in e-cigarette vapor.

In one study of general surgery patients, quitting smoking for three or four weeks before surgery reduced the complication rate from about 40 to 20 percent. Based on this and other high-quality evidence, cigarette smokers are strongly advised to stop smoking at least four weeks before plastic surgery procedures.

A similar guideline should apply to the use of e-cigarettes before plastic surgery, Drs. Taub and Matarasso believe. They write: "Based on our current best knowledge, it seems reasonable to advise plastic surgery candidates to cease e-cigarette use in a manner similar to what is advised for [cigarettes]." Especially with the rising rate of e-cigarette use in the population, plastic surgeons should be aware of the possible increase in risk, and advise their patients accordingly.

Meanwhile, the authors acknowledge the lack of direct evidence showing that the nicotine in e-cigarette vapor increases the risk of blood flow-related complications. They conclude: "More definitive research might elucidate the effects of vaporized nicotine on the survival of skin and soft tissue flaps, as they most intimately relate to the safe practice of plastic surgery."

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery® is published by Wolters Kluwer.
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Click here to read "E-Cigarettes and Potential Implications for Plastic Surgery."

Articles: "E-Cigarettes and Potential Implications for Plastic Surgery" (doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000002742)

About Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

For more than 70 years, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery® has been the one consistently excellent reference for every specialist who uses plastic surgery techniques or works in conjunction with a plastic surgeon. The official journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery® brings subscribers up-to-the-minute reports on the latest techniques and follow-up for all areas of plastic and reconstructive surgery, including breast reconstruction, experimental studies, maxillofacial reconstruction, hand and microsurgery, burn repair, and cosmetic surgery, as well as news on medico-legal issues

About ASPS

The American Society of Plastic Surgeons is the largest organization of board-certified plastic surgeons in the world. Representing more than 7,000 physician members, the Society is recognized as a leading authority and information source on cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery. ASPS comprises more than 94 percent of all board-certified plastic surgeons in the United States. Founded in 1931, the Society represents physicians certified by The American Board of Plastic Surgery or The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

About Wolters Kluwer

Wolters Kluwer is a global leader in professional information services. Professionals in the areas of legal, business, tax, accounting, finance, audit, risk, compliance and healthcare rely on Wolters Kluwer's market leading information-enabled tools and software solutions to manage their business efficiently, deliver results to their clients, and succeed in an ever more dynamic world.

Wolters Kluwer reported 2015 annual revenues of €4.2 billion. The group serves customers in over 180 countries, and employs over 19,000 people worldwide. The company is headquartered in Alphen aan den Rijn, the Netherlands. Wolters Kluwer shares are listed on Euronext Amsterdam (WKL) and are included in the AEX and Euronext 100 indices. Wolters Kluwer has a sponsored Level 1 American Depositary Receipt program. The ADRs are traded on the over-the-counter market in the U.S. (WTKWY).

Wolters Kluwer Health is a leading global provider of information and point of care solutions for the healthcare industry. For more information about our products and organization, visit http://www.wolterskluwer.com, follow @WKHealth or @Wolters_Kluwer on Twitter, like us on Facebook, follow us on LinkedIn, or follow WoltersKluwerComms on YouTube.

Wolters Kluwer Health

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