Seismology tip sheet for Dec. 2011: BSSADecember 01, 2011
Dec. 2011 BSSA: Monitoring the earthquake source process in North America; fractured bedrock may amplify shaking; and historic 1909 quake near Montana/Canada re-assessed
Please cite the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA) as the source of this information.
Monitoring the Earthquake Source Process in North America
Earthquake monitoring has yielded a rich database quantifying the last 30 years of activity, particularly moderate and larger quakes in active seismic zones. Now scientists have implemented procedures to routinely determine earthquake source information for the smaller magnitude earthquakes typically observed in central and eastern North America.
The benefits of the approach are reduced uncertainty in earthquake magnitude, improved source depth estimates and information about the tectonic stresses that cause the earthquakes. These parameters, in turn, contribute to assessing seismic hazards by constraining ground motion and source scaling relations impact assessment products such as PAGER -- Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response.
This study applied two techniques for source inversion to earthquakes with reported magnitude greater than 3.5 in continental North America to create a catalog that includes 400 new well-calibrated moment magnitudes and source parameters for earthquakes. The catalog provides new detailed information on systematic variations in faulting styles and geometry for central and eastern regions of North America.
"Monitoring the Earthquake Source Process in North America," by Robert B. Herrmann at Saint Louis University, Harley Benz at U.S. Geological Survey and Charles J. Ammon at Penn State. Corresponding author: Robert B. Herrmann, Saint Louis University, email@example.com, 314-977-3120.
Fractured bedrock may amplify shaking, complicating seismic hazard assessments
Strong earthquakes may induce fracturing of bedrock that amplifies shaking during subsequent seismic events, increasing the likelihood of future rockslides and other earthquake-triggered slope failures, suggests a study of a large, unstable rock slope in Randa, Switzerland.
Unconsolidated soil and sedimentary basins are known to amplify shaking, but bedrock is generally thought to be stable. But at Randa, located within the most seismically active area in Switzerland, scientists evaluated ground motion recordings during small earthquakes and found that fracturing of the rock mass can amplify ground motion by up to a factor of ten.
"Site Effects in Unstable Rock Slopes: Dynamic Behavior of the Randa Instability (Switzerland)," by Jeffrey Moore, Valentin Gischig, Jan Burjanek, Simon Loew and Donat Faeh of ETH Zurich.
Corresponding author: Jeffrey Moore, firstname.lastname@example.org
Historic 1909 earthquake near Montana/Canada re-assessed
A new study locates the May 16, 1909 earthquake near the Montana-Saskatchewan border along an extension of the mapped 186-mile long Hinsdale fault in Montana, suggesting local seismic hazards may be greater than previously recognized.
The largest historical earthquake in the northern Great Plains of North America, the estimated magnitude 5.3-5.4 earthquake was felt in the states of Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming in the United States and in the provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario and Saskatchewan in Canada.
The refined location of the quake may have seismic-hazard implications for the region, particularly for the earth-filled Fort Peck Dam constructed in the 1930's on the Missouri River in northeast Montana.
"The 16 May 1909 Northern Great Plains Earthquake," by W. H. Bakun of the U.S. Geological Survey, M. C. Stickney of Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology and G. C. Rogers of Geological Survey of Canada.
Corresponding author: W. H. Bakun, email@example.com, 650-329-4793
Seismological Society of America
Related Earthquake Articles:
Scientists reckon with an earthquake with a magnitude of 7 or greater in this region in the coming years.
Researchers at Tohoku University's Department of Geophysics, have been studying the deep earthquake which occurred on May 30, 2015, to the west of Japan's Bonin Islands.
Where a tectonic plate dives under another, in the so-called subduction zones at ocean margins, many strong earthquakes occur.
Preparation and good timing enabled Gareth Funning and a team of researchers to collect a unique data set following the 2014 South Napa earthquake that showed different parts of the fault, sometimes only a few kilometers apart, moved at different speeds and at different times.
The Istanbul metropolitan region faces a high probability for a large earthquake in the near future.
A team of researchers, including one from the University of California, Riverside, has discovered that earthquake ruptures can jump much further than previously thought, a finding that could have severe implications on the Los Angeles area and other regions in the world.
Seismologists at the University of Liverpool studying the 2011 Chile earthquake have discovered a previously undetected earthquake which took place seconds after the initial rupture.
Northwestern University researchers have turned to an unusual source -- Major League Baseball -- to help learn why maps used to predict shaking in future earthquakes often do poorly.
Experts expected for some time that one of the next mega earthquakes occurs off northern Chile.
In the last few months, it has once more become clear that large earthquakes can solicit catastrophic landsliding.
Related Earthquake Reading:
Earthquakes (Let's-Read-and-Find-Out Science 2)
by Dr. Franklyn M. Branley (Author), Megan Lloyd (Illustrator)
Read and find out about one of nature’s most mysterious forces—the earthquake. Some earthquakes are so small that you don’t even feel them, while others can make even big buildings shake! Learn why earthquakes happen, where they are most likely to occur, and what to do if one happens near you.
Now rebranded with a new cover look and with updated text and art, this classic picture book describes the causes and effects of earthquakes (including a tsunami). This book features rich vocabulary and fascinating cross-sections of mountains, volcanoes, and faults in the earth’s moving... View Details
Earthquakes (True Books: Earth Science (Paperback))
by Ker Than (Author)
- Clean new design for easy readability and comprehension
- Updated text presented in a lively, continuous narrative
- New center-spread sidebar feature presenting material in a fun, creative way
- Excellent age-appropriate introduction to curriculum-relevant subjects
- Important Words glossary clarifies subject-specific vocabulary
- Resources section encourages independent study
- Index makes navigating subject matter easy View Details
by Seymour Simon (Author)
Seymour Simon knows how to explain science to kids and make it fun. He was a teacher for over twenty years, has written more than 250 books, and has won multiple awards. In Earthquakes, Simon introduces elementary-school readers to earthquakes through engaging descriptions and stunning full-color photographs. He teaches readers why and how earthquakes happen and the damage they can cause through pictures, diagrams, and maps. He also gives real life examples of earthquakes that have occurred all over the world. This book includes a glossary and index.
Supports the Common Core... View Details
I Survived the San Francisco Earthquake, 1906 (I Survived #5)
by Lauren Tarshis (Author), Scott Dawson (Illustrator)
Ten-year-old Leo loves being a newsboy in San Francisco -- not only does he get to make some money to help his family, he's free to explore the amazing, hilly city as it changes and grows with the new century. Horse-drawn carriages share the streets with shiny new automobiles, new businesses and families move in every day from everywhere, and anything seems possible.
But early one spring morning, everything changes. Leo's world is shaken -- literally -- and he finds himself stranded in the middle of San Francisco as it crumbles and burns to the ground. Does Leo have what it takes to... View Details
The Great Quake: How the Biggest Earthquake in North America Changed Our Understanding of the Planet
by Henry Fountain (Author)
New York Times Book Review Editors' Choice
In the bestselling tradition of Erik Larson’s Isaac’s Storm, The Great Quake is a riveting narrative about the biggest earthquake in North American recorded history -- the 1964 Alaska earthquake that demolished the city of Valdez and swept away the island village of Chenega -- and the geologist who hunted for clues to explain how and why it took place.
At 5:36 p.m. on March 27, 1964, a magnitude 9.2. earthquake – the second most powerful in world history – struck the young state of Alaska. The... View Details
Human Earthquake: Book I
by Ramon Darnell (Author)
What is it for a man to gain the world but lose his soul? I feel compelled to share my story which allows me to be a living example and talk about the good, the bad and the beautiful journey that I have taken. Take this voyage with me and witness the scientific and strategic development of a Mack, who rose to the top in the violent streets of the south side of Chicago. Human Earthquake will expose the inside track on the street game which lead me to evolve into a King, in my world that allowed me to conquer at will. This is a fascinating three-part epic, a must read. So,... View Details
Earthquake in the Early Morning (Magic Tree House #24) (Magic Tree House (R))
by Mary Pope Osborne (Author), Sal Murdocca (Illustrator)
The #1 bestselling chapter book series of all time celebrates 25 years with new covers and a new, easy-to-use numbering system!
An adventure that will shake you up! That's what Jack and Annie get when the Magic Tree House whisks them back to California in 1906. As soon as they arrive, the famous San Francisco earthquake hits the city. Can Jack and Annie save the day? Or will San Francisco be destroyed first?
Did you know that there’s a Magic Tree House book for every kid?
Magic Tree House: Adventures with Jack and Annie, perfect for readers who are just beginning... View Details
National Geographic Kids Everything Volcanoes and Earthquakes: Earthshaking photos, facts, and fun!
by Kathy Furgang (Author)
National Geographic Kids Everything Volcanoes and Earthquakes explodes with incredible photos and amazing facts about the awesome powers of nature. You'll find out that three-quarters of Earth's volcanoes are underwater, that an earthquake in Chile shortened the day by 1.26 milliseconds, and much more. Bursting with fascinating information about the biggest volcanic eruptions and earth-shattering earthquakes, this book takes a fun approach to science, introducing kids to plate tectonics and the tumultuous forces brewing beneath the Earth's surface. Filled with fabulous photos and... View Details
Quakeland: On the Road to America's Next Devastating Earthquake
by Kathryn Miles (Author)
A journey around the United States in search of the truth about the threat of earthquakes leads to spine-tingling discoveries, unnerving experts, and ultimately the kind of preparations that will actually help guide us through disasters. It’s a road trip full of surprises.
Earthquakes. You need to worry about them only if you’re in San Francisco, right? Wrong. We have been making enormous changes to subterranean America, and Mother Earth, as always, has been making some of her own. . . . The consequences for our real estate, our civil engineering, and our... View Details
Earthquakes! (TIME FOR KIDS® Nonfiction Readers)
by Teacher Created Materials (Author)
Early elementary readers find out what causes earthquakes and what to do to stay safe if one occurs in this helpful nonfiction reader. Featuring informational text, colorful maps, diagrams, and vibrant photos, this book keeps children engaged and fascinated at the same time!
About Shell Education
Rachelle Cracchiolo started the company with a friend and fellow teacher. Both were eager to share their ideas and passion for education with other classroom leaders. What began as a hobby, selling lesson plans to local stores, became a part-time job after a full day of teaching,... View Details