Acculturation influences smoking cessation by Latino men

December 03, 2009

HOUSTON - Latino men who are more adapted to U.S. culture are more likely to quit smoking than their less-acculturated counterparts, according to research by scientists at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center published in the December issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, which has a special emphasis on tobacco.

The researchers found that acculturation has no effect on the likelihood of Latinas quitting smoking. The study of 271 Latino smokers who called a Spanish-language smoking cessation Quitline examined the influence of gender and indicators of acculturation on the ability to quit smoking.

The number of years and the proportion of life spent in the United States, along with English preference for watching news and television programs, were positively related to smoking cessation for men.

"Successful tobacco control efforts must place a special emphasis on reaching Latinos and other underserved groups who have greater difficulty quitting and less access to pharmacological or behavioral treatment," said lead author Yessenia Castro, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in M. D. Anderson's Department of Health Disparities Research. "Our findings indicate that smoking cessation outreach to Latinos also needs to take into account male smokers who have lived in the United States for short periods and who prefer Spanish."

While the researchers uncovered important acculturation-related predictors of smoking cessation, Castro says cultural adaptation probably affects smoking indirectly by influencing other important variables, such as levels of stress, social support, feelings of competency or depression.

"It's critically important for us to understand the mechanisms by which acculturation affects smoking," Castro said. "It's these variables that can and should be targeted in treatment." Castro, senior author David Wetter, Ph.D., professor and chair of Health Disparities, and colleagues are addressing that issue with a long-term cohort study of Mexican-origin smokers.

"Advancing knowledge in these areas can help identify treatment targets, improve current smoking cessation interventions and ultimately aid in eliminating smoking-related health disparities among Latinos," Castro said. "This information can be used to guide tobacco control efforts and media campaigns."

Earlier studies had shown that both acculturation and gender influence smoking prevalence among Latinos, but little was known about their effects on smoking cessation.

Castro and colleagues initially examined six acculturation factors: years in the United States, proportion of life lived in the United States, immigrant/non-immigrant status, language spoken at home, language spoken at work, and preferred media language. Of those, only language spoken at home and at work were not significant. Data indicated differences by gender in the four remaining areas.

Follow-up analyses indicated no acculturation impact for women, and significant effects for men in years and life proportion spent in the United States and preference for English as the media language.

For example, men who had been in the country for up to five years had about 20 percent abstinence rate at the three-month follow-up point after participating in the Quitline program. But more than 35 percent of men who had been in the U.S. for 23-76 years abstained.

Those who preferred to view news and entertainment mainly or exclusively in English had a 48 percent abstinence rate after three months, while 20 percent of those who preferred Spanish were still not smoking.
Research was funded by a grant from the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities.

Co-authors with Castro and Wetter are Lorraine Reitzel, Ph.D, Michael Businelle, Ph.D., Darla Kendzor, Ph.D., and Carlos Mazas, Ph.D., all of the Department of Health Disparities Research; Yisheng Li, Ph.D., of M. D. Anderson's Department of Biostatistics, and Ludmila Cofta-Woerpel, Ph.D., of M. D. Anderson's Department of Behavioral Science and the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service.

About M. D. Anderson

The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston ranks as one of the world's most respected centers focused on cancer patient care, research, education and prevention. M. D. Anderson is one of only 40 comprehensive cancer centers designated by the National Cancer Institute. For six of the past eight years, including 2009, M. D. Anderson has ranked No. 1 in cancer care in "America's Best Hospitals," a survey published annually in U.S. News & World Report.

University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center

Related Smoking Articles from Brightsurf:

Smoking rates falling in adults, but stroke survivors' smoking rates remain steady
While the rate of Americans who smoke tobacco has fallen steadily over the last two decades, the rate of stroke survivors who smoke has not changed significantly.

What is your risk from smoking? Your network knows!
A new study from researchers at Penn's Annenberg School for Communication found that most people, smokers and non-smokers alike, were nowhere near accurate in their answers to questions about smoking's health effects.

Want to quit smoking? Partner up
Kicking the habit works best in pairs. That's the main message of a study presented today at EuroPrevent 2019, a scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

Smoking and mortality in Asia
In this analysis of data from 20 studies conducted in China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and India with more than 1 million participants, deaths associated with smoking continued to increase among men in Asia grouped by the years in which they were born.

Predictors of successfully quitting smoking among smokers registered at the quit smoking clinic at a public hospital in northeastern Malaysia
In the current issue of Family Medicine and Community Health, Nur Izzati Mohammad et al. consider how cigarette smoking is one of the risk factors leading to noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular and respiratory system diseases and cancer.

Restaurant and bar smoking bans do reduce smoking, especially among the highly educated
Smoking risk drops significantly in college graduates when they live near areas that have completely banned smoking in bars and restaurants, according to a new study in the American Journal of Epidemiology.

How the UK smoking ban increased wellbeing
Married women with children reported the largest increase in well-being following the smoking bans in the UK in 2006 and 2007 but there was no comparable increase for married men with children.

Smoking study personalizes treatment
A simple blood test is allowing Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) researchers to determine which patients should be prescribed varenicline (Chantix) to stop smoking and which patients could do just as well, and avoid side effects, by using a nicotine patch.

A biophysical smoking gun
While much about Alzheimer's disease remains a mystery, scientists do know that part of the disease's progression involves a normal protein called tau, aggregating to form ropelike inclusions within brain cells that eventually strangle the neurons.

A case where smoking helped
A mutation in the hemoglobin of a young woman in Germany was found to cause her mild anemia.

Read More: Smoking News and Smoking Current Events is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to