Subtle cues can dictate the fate of stem cellsDecember 04, 2017
If you've seen one GSK3 molecule, do not assume that you have seen them all. A new study in Developmental Cell reveals important differences in two similar forms of GSK3, which, in excess, is implicated in diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease and ALS.
In the study, first author Xi Chen--a PhD student in the USC Stem Cell laboratory of Qi-Long Ying--describes how the two similar forms--known as GSK3-beta and GSK3-alpha--can produce very different reactions in embryonic stem cells. Inhibiting GSK3-beta can promote stem cell self-renewal, while inhibiting GSK3-alpha can trigger differentiation into neural cells.
"The key message is that selective inhibition of GSK3-alpha and GSK3-beta has very distinct effects on embryonic stem cell fates," said Ying, professor of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine at USC. "This is likely also true for other cell types."
In order to selectively inhibit these two very similar forms of GSK3, the Ying Lab called upon the expertise of colleagues in the Department of Chemistry at the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences.
"This is an elegant study resulting from collaborative efforts between two labs of complementary expertise. We employed an innovative chemical approach to tackle a biological problem that would be difficult to study using conventional methods," said Chao Zhang, assistant professor of chemistry.
These findings carry implications for developing drugs that target overactive GSK3 in certain patients with diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease and ALS. A drug that targets GSK3 in general could have unintended side effects. However, no drug can target one form of GSK3 without the other, because of their highly similar structures--highlighting the need for more refined approaches to treatment.
Inhibiting only GSK3-beta could also provide a useful tool for producing stem cells that are not merely "pluripotent" but able to contribute to the formation of embryos. These so-called naïve pluripotent stem cells can become any cell type in the body. Currently, scientists have derived naïve pluripotent stem cells from mice and rats, but they have not yet succeeded in obtaining naïve pluripotent stem cells from other species, including humans. Pluripotent human stem cells are the basic building blocks for regenerating any tissue or organ in the body.
Ten percent of the work was supported by $600,000 in federal funding from the National Science Foundation (CHE-1455306). Ninety percent of the research was funded by $3 million from private and non-federal sources, including the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (New Faculty Award II RN2-00938 and CIRM Bridges to Stem Cell Research Fellowship), the Cheng Yong Foundation of the Zhongmei Group, the American Cancer Society (IRG-58-007-51), the USC Office of Research, and the USC Norris Medical Library.
University of Southern California - Health Sciences
Related Diabetes Articles:
There has been no known link between diabetes and vitamin A -- until now.
Two studies in the Jan. 24/31 issue of JAMA find that use of a sensor implanted under the skin that continuously monitors glucose levels resulted in improved levels in patients with type 1 diabetes who inject insulin multiple times a day, compared to conventional treatment.
T2D Lifestyle, a national survey by Health Union of more than 400 individuals experiencing type 2 diabetes (T2D), reveals that patients not only struggle with commonly understood complications, but also numerous lesser known ones that people do not associate with diabetes.
Social and economic factors have led to a dramatic rise in type 2 diabetes and obesity around the world.
An international team of researchers has discovered a simple, accurate new way to predict which women with gestational diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes after delivery.
Older Americans with diabetes born in the 1940s are living longer and with less disability performing day to day tasks than those born 10 years earlier, according to new research published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal.
A new study from Newcastle University, UK, has shown that people who reverse their diabetes and then keep their weight down remain free of diabetes.
Although insulin-producing cells are found in the endocrine tissue of the pancreas, a new mouse study suggests that abnormalities in the exocrine tissue could cause cell non-autonomous effects that promotes diabetes-like symptoms.
A new study published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal suggests that reducing sugar content in sugar sweetened drinks (including fruit juices) in the UK by 40 percent over five years, without replacing them with any artificial sweeteners, could prevent 500,000 cases of overweight and 1 million cases of obesity, in turn preventing around 300,000 cases of type 2 diabetes, over two decades.
Women with gestational diabetes who consistently and continuously breastfeed from the time of giving birth are half as likely to develop type 2 diabetes within two years after delivery, according to a study from Kaiser Permanente published today in Annals of Internal Medicine.
Related Diabetes Reading:
Bright Spots & Landmines: The Diabetes Guide I Wish Someone Had Handed Me
by Adam Brown (Author), Kelly L. Close (Foreword)
Adam Brown’s acclaimed diaTribe column, Adam’s Corner, has brought life-transforming diabetes tips to over 1 million people since 2013. In this highly actionable guide, he shares the food, mindset, exercise, and sleep strategies that have had the biggest positive impact on his diabetes – and hopefully yours too! Bright Spots & Landmines is filled with hundreds of effective diabetes tips, questions, and shortcuts, including what to eat to minimize blood sugar swings; helpful strategies to feel less stressed, guilty, and burned out; and simple ways to improve exercise and... View Details
The End of Diabetes: The Eat to Live Plan to Prevent and Reverse Diabetes
by Dr. Joel Fuhrman (Author)
The New York Times bestselling author of Eat to Live and Super Immunity and one of the country’s leading experts on preventive medicine offers a scientifically proven, practical program to prevent and reverse diabetes—without drugs.
At last, a breakthrough program to combat the rising diabetes epidemic and help millions of diabetics, as well as those suffering with high blood pressure and heart disease. Joel Fuhrman, M.D. Research director of the Nutritional Research Foundation, shows you how to live a long, healthy, and happy life—disease free. He... View Details
Dr. Neal Barnard's Program for Reversing Diabetes: The Scientifically Proven System for Reversing Diabetes Without Drugs
by Neal Barnard M.D. (Author)
Tackle diabetes and its complications for good with this newly updated edition of Dr. Neal Barnard's groundbreaking program.
Revised and updated, this latest edition of Dr. Barnard’s groundbreaking book features a new preface, updates to diagnostic and monitoring standards, recent research studies, and fresh success stories of people who have eliminated their diabetes by following this life-changing plan.
Before Dr. Barnard’s scientific breakthrough, most health professionals believed that once you developed diabetes, you were stuck with it―and could anticipate one... View Details
Diabetes For Dummies
by Alan L. Rubin (Author)
The straight facts on treating diabetes successfully
With diabetes now considered pandemic throughout the world, there have been enormous advances in the field. Now significantly revised and updated, this new edition of Diabetes For Dummies includes the latest information on diabetes medications and monitoring equipment, new findings about treating diabetes in the young and elderly, new ways to diagnose and treat long- and short-term complications, updated nutritional guidelines, new tools for measuring blood sugar and delivering insulin to the body, and much more.
There's... View Details
Choose Your Foods: Food Lists for Diabetes
by American Diabetes Association (Author)
The standard for diabetes meal planning for over 60 years, this edition features updated carbohydrate, protein, and fat information for a wide variety of foods and beverages and replaces exchange terminology with choices. Includes tips on exercise, reading food labels, and a glossary of diabetes related terms. View Details
The Official Pocket Guide to Diabetic Food Choices
by American Diabetes Association ADA (Author)
Completely updated to match the newest edition of Choose Your Foods: Food Lists for Diabetes Meal Planning, this pocket-sized guide is now better and more complete than ever.
Every day and at every meal, millions of people use the food list system to plan meals, make healthier choices, and better estimate portions. This proven system is the most popular approach to diabetes meal planning and has been used by dietitians, diabetes educators, and millions of people with diabetes for more than 70 years. This portable version of the Food Lists takes all of the information from... View Details
Diabetic Living Diabetes Meals by the Plate: 90 Low-Carb Meals to Mix & Match
by Diabetic Living Editors (Author)
An easy, graphic guide to planning delicious, diabetes-friendly meals This innovative, graphic cookbook offers the easiest and most flavorful way to build complete meals that are diabetes-friendly and delicious. Sidestepping complex programs that turn meal-planning into work, the 90 complete meals in Diabetes Meals by the Plate follow the Plate Method—a simple approach to eating the right foods in proper amounts by filling your plate with one half nonstarchy vegetables, one quarter protein, and one quarter starch. A clever photo style showing every meal in its three... View Details
Dr. Bernstein's Diabetes Solution: The Complete Guide to Achieving Normal Blood Sugars
by Richard K. Bernstein (Author)
9780316182690 Features: -Title: Dr. Bernstein's Diabetes Solution. -Sub title: The Complete Guide to Achieving Normal Blood Sugars. -ISBN: 0316182699. -ISBN 13: 9780316182690. -General subject: Health and fitness. -Subject: Health and fitness / diseases / diabetes. Subject: -Health & Fitness. Country of Manufacture: -United States. Age Group: -Adults. Dimensions: Overall Height - Top to Bottom: -1.75". Overall Width - Side to Side: -9.75". Overall Depth - Front to Back: -6.5". Overall Product Weight: -1.8 lbs. View Details
The First Year: Type 2 Diabetes: An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed (The Complete First Year)
by Gretchen Becker (Author), Allison B. Goldfine (Author)
The go-to step-by-step guide that walks you through the first days, weeks, and months of your diagnosis–fully revised and updated
Gretchen Becker was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in 1996; over the past twenty years, she has educated herself on every aspect of the condition by reading medical texts and journals, talking with doctors, and corresponding with others who have type 2, sharing everything she's learned in a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide. Now in its third edition, The First Year: Type 2 Diabetes takes you through everything you need to learn and do in your... View Details
Dr. Neal Barnard's Cookbook for Reversing Diabetes: 150 Recipes Scientifically Proven to Reverse Diabetes Without Drugs
by Neal Barnard M.D. (Author), Dreena Burton (Contributor)
150 delicious plant-based recipes designed to tackle diabetes and its complications.
Finally an approach to managing diabetes that is not based on pills or injections, but on food―the most delicious “prescription” you could imagine. Written by Dr. Neal Barnard, the unparalleled expert on diabetes and health, with recipes developed by Dreena Burton, bestselling cookbook author and creator of the Plant Powered Kitchen blog, this plant-based cookbook is filled with 150 easy and delicious recipes.
Inside, expect to find favorite foods like burgers, onion rings,... View Details